Management Test 2 Review

Management test 2 review

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 2 Four Layers of Diversity- Personality is at the center of the diversity wheel because it represents a stable set of characteristics that is responsible for a person's identity. Next layer consists a set of internal dimensions that are referred to as surface level dimensions of diversity. These dimensions are usually not within our control, but strongly influence our attitudes, expectations, assumptions, which in turn, influences our behavior. The 3rd layer is composed of external influences which are also called secondary dimensions of diversity. They represent individual differences that we have a greater ability to influence or control. Ex: where you grew up and live today, religious affiliation, whether married and children, and work experiences. Also exerts a significant influence on our perceptions, behaviors, attitudes. Final layer includes organizational dimensions such as seniority, job title and function, and work location. Managing Diversity- entails enabling people to perform up to their maximum potential. It focuses on changing an organization's culture and infrastructure such that people provide the highest productivity. Ann Morrison uncovered 3 key strategies for success: education, enforcement, and exposure. The Glass Ceiling- represents an invisible barrier that separates women and minorities from advancing into top management positions. They find themselves stuck in lower level jobs, ones that do not have profit-loss responsibility, and those with less visibility and influence. Four Strategies- consistently exceeding performance expectations, developing assignments, and having influential mentors. Women do not get promoted- they lack significant general management or line experience, women have not been in the executive talent pool for a long enough period of time to get selected. Female executives indicated- male stereotyping and preconceptions, exclusion from informal networks were the biggest inhibitors. Underemployment- exists when a job requires less than a person's full potential as determined by his or her formal education, training, or skills. Negatively correlated with job satisfaction and involvement, work commitment, internal work motivation, life satisfaction, and psychological well being. Also related to higher absenteeism and turnover. Because of this, more college grads are starting businesses of their own. Career Plateauing- the point in a career at which future hierarchical mobility seems unlikely. It is associated with stress and dissatisfaction. This problem is intensified by the fact that organizations are flattening- and reducing the number of managerial jobs in order to save costs and increase efficiency. Thus, managers will need to find alternatives other than promotions to help employees satisfy their needs and to feel successful, and employees will need to take a much more active role in managing their careers. Social Categorization Theory- holds that similarities and differences are used as a basis for categorizing self and others into groups, with ensuing categorizations distinguishing between one's own in-group and one or more out-groups. People tend to like and trust in-group members more than out-group members and thus generally tend to favor groups over out-groups. Work group members are more positively inclined toward their group and the people within it if fellow group members are similar rather than dissimilar to the self. Information/Decision-Making Theory- Diversity leads to better task-relevant processes and decision making. (1) diverse groups are expected to do a better job in earlier phases of problem solving because they are more likely to use their diverse backgrounds to generate a more comprehensive view of a problem, (2) the existence of diverse perspectives can help groups to brainstorm or uncover more novel alternatives during problem-solving activities, (3) diversity can enhance the number of contacts a group or work unit has at its disposal. These groups product better quality decisions and demonstrated higher productivity than homogenous groups. Also promotes creativity and innovation. How to Reduce Negative Outcomes of Diversity- (1) organizations can target training to improve the inherent negative relationship between a work group's diversity and its interpersonal processes and group dynamics. (2) managers can seek ways to help employees ease the tensions of working in diverse groups. Such efforts might include the creation of support groups. (3) steps can be taken to reduce the negative effects of unconscious stereotyping and increase the use of group goals in heterogeneous groups. Rewarding groups to accomplish group goals might encourage group members to focus on their common objectives rather than on demographic differences that are unrelated to performance. Barriers & Challenges to Managing Diversity- (1) Inaccurate stereotypes and prejudice- manifests itself that differences are viewed as weaknesses....
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