Four Layers of Diversity-
Personality is at the center of the diversity wheel because it represents a stable set of characteristics that is responsible for a person’s identity. Next layer consists a set of internal dimensions that are referred to as surface level
dimensions of diversity. These dimensions are usually not within our control, but strongly influence our attitudes, expectations, assumptions, which in turn, influences our behavior. The 3
layer is composed of external influences which are also called
secondary dimensions of diversity. They represent individual differences that we have a greater ability to influence or control. Ex: where you grew up and live today, religious affiliation, whether married and children, and work experiences. Also exerts a
significant influence on our perceptions, behaviors, attitudes. Final layer includes organizational dimensions such as seniority, job title and function, and work location.
entails enabling people to perform up to their maximum potential. It focuses on changing an organization’s culture and infrastructure such that people provide the highest productivity. Ann Morrison uncovered 3 key strategies for
success: education, enforcement, and exposure.
The Glass Ceiling-
represents an invisible barrier that separates women and minorities from advancing into top management positions. They find themselves stuck in lower level jobs, ones that do not have profit-loss responsibility, and those with less
visibility and influence.
consistently exceeding performance expectations, developing assignments, and having influential mentors.
Women do not get promoted-
they lack significant general management or line experience, women have not
been in the executive talent pool for a long enough period of time to get selected.
Female executives indicated-
male stereotyping and preconceptions, exclusion from informal networks were the biggest inhibitors.
exists when a job requires less than a person’s full potential as determined by his or her formal education, training, or skills. Negatively correlated with job satisfaction and involvement, work commitment, internal work motivation, life
satisfaction, and psychological well being. Also related to higher absenteeism and turnover. Because of this, more college grads are starting businesses of their own.
the point in a career at which future hierarchical mobility seems unlikely. It is associated with stress and dissatisfaction. This problem is intensified by the fact that organizations are flattening- and reducing the number of managerial jobs
in order to save costs and increase efficiency. Thus, managers will need to find alternatives other than promotions to help employees satisfy their needs and to feel successful, and employees will need to take a much more active role in managing their