Management Test 2 Review

Self centered leaders seen as loners or face savers

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Unformatted text preview: ers who are good team builders generally do the best. Self centered leaders seen as loners or face-savers receive poor reception worldwide. Universally Positive Leader Attributes Universally Negative Leader Attributes Trustworthy, Just, Honest, Foresight, Plans ahead, Encouraging, Positive, Dynamic, Motive arouser, Confidence builder, Motivational, Loner, Asocial, Noncooperative, Irritable, Nonexplicit, Egocentric, Ruthless, Dictatorial Dependable, Intelligent, Decisive, Effective bargainer, Win-win problem solver, Administrative skilled, Communicative, Informed, Coordinator, Team builder, Excellence oriented Expatriates- refers to anyone living or working outside their home country. Personal and family adjustment problems (36.6%) and homesickness (31%) wre major stumbling blocks for American managers. The Foreign Assignment Cycle- Reassignment (Home Country Experiences)- 1. Selection and training "Unrealistic expectations" (Foreign Country Experiences)- 2. Arrival and adjustment "Culture Shock" 3. Settling in and acculturating "Lack of support" 4. Returning home and adjusting "reentry shock" Cross-Cultural Training- any type of structured experience designed to help departing employees adjust to a foreign culture. Experts believe cultural training is less expensive than failed foreign assignments. Easiest- predeparture training is limited to info materials, including books, lectures, films, videos, internet searches. Moderately difficult- experiential training is conducted thru case studies, role playing, assimilators, and intro language instruction. Most difficult- departing workers are given combo of the preceding methods plus comprehensive language instruction and field experience in the target culture. Recommend a combo of infor and experiential predeparture training. Culture &Reentry Shock- culture shock- involved anxiety and doubt caused by an overload of unfamiliar expectations and social cues. Best defense is comprehensive cross cultural training including intensive language study. Reentry shock- three areas are work, social activities, general environment (politics, climate, transportation, food). Work related were found to be a major problem. Organizational Culture- Chapter 3 Layers of Organizational Culture- observable artifacts- more visible level. Consists of the physical manifestation of an organization's culture. Includes acronyms, manner of dress, awards, myths, stories, values, rituals and ceremonies, special parking spaces, decorations. Espoused values- values possess five key components. (1) concepts of beliefs, (2) pertain to desirable end states or behaviors, (3) transcend situations, (4) guide selection or evaluation of behavior and events, (5) are ordered by relative importance. Espoused values represent the explicitly stated values and norms that are preferred by an organization. Generally found by the founder of a new company and by top management team in corps. Represents aspirations that are explicitly communicated to employees, managers hope that it will directly influence behaviors. But people do not always "walk the talk" Enacted Values- represent values and norms that actually are exhibited or converted into employee behavior. Represents values that employees ascribe to an organization based on their observations of the difference between espoused and enacted. It is important to reduce the gap between espoused and enacted b/c they influence employee attitudes and organizational performance. Four Functions of Organization Culture- (1) Give members an organizational identity. (2) Facilitate collective commitment. (3) Promote social system stability. (4) Shape behavior by helping members make sense of their surroundings. Research on Organizational Cultures- Managers and researchers believe that organizational culture can be a driver of employee attitudes and organizational effectiveness and performance. It is significantly correlated with employee behavior and attitudes. For example, a constructive culture was positively related with job satisfaction , intentions to stay at the company, and innovation and was neg with work avoidance. Passive defensive and aggressive defensive cultures were neg with job satisfaction and intentions to stay at the company. Also, the congruence between an individual's values and organization's values was significantly associated with organizational commitment, job satisfaction, intention to quit, and turnover. Third, organizational culture did not predict an organization's financial performance. Finally, mergers frequently failed due to incompatible cultures. Strength, Fit, and Adaptive Perspective- Strength- predicts a significant relationship between strength of corp culture and long term financial performance. The idea is that strong cultures create goal alignment, employee motiviation, and the appropriate structure and control needed to improve organizational performance. Critics believe that companies with st...
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This note was uploaded on 03/21/2008 for the course MAN 336 taught by Professor Edwards during the Spring '08 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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