Management Test 2 Review

Suggests employees will attribute their success to

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Unformatted text preview: ure. Suggests employees will attribute their success to internal factors and their failures to uncontrollable external factors. "When highly self enforced people feel that failure can be rapidly remedied, they attribute failure to self; when the likelihood of improvement is low, failure is attributed externally. International OB- Chapter 4 Ethnocentrism- belief that one's native country, culture, language, and modes of behavior are superior to all others. Cultural Intelligence- the ability to accurately interpret ambiguous cross-cultural situations. Need to first develop emotional intelligence and then practice ambiguous cross-cultural situations. Cultural Paradox- there are always exceptions to the rule; individuals who do not fit the expected cultural pattern. High vs Low context- High- includes China, Korea, Japan, Vietnam, Mexico, Arab. Rely heavily on situational cues for meaning when perceiving and communicating with others. Nonverbal cues such as one's position, status, family connections convey messages more powerful than spoken words. Low- written and spoken carry the burden of shared meanings. Germany, Switzerland, Scandinavia, North America, England. Avoiding Cultural Collisions- (1) People on both sides of the context barrier must be trained to make adjustments, (2) A new employee should be greeted by a group consisting of his or her boss, several colleagues who have similar duties, and an individual located near the newcomer, (3) background info is essential when explaining anything. Include history and personalities involved, (4) do not assume the newcomer is self-reliant. Give explicit instructions not only about objects but also about the process, (5) high context workers from abroad need to learn to ask questions outside of their department and function, (6) foreign workers must make an effort to become more self reliant. Individualistic vs Collectivist- individualistic- characterized as "I" and "me". Give priority to individual freedom and choice. They emphasize personal responsibility for one's affairs. Netherlands is 1 and U.S is 13. collectivist- "we" and "us" cultures. Rank shared goals higher than individual desires. Egypt, Nepal, Mexico, India, Japan. Monochronic vs Polychronic- monochronic- preference for doing one thing at a time b/c time is limited, precisely segmented, and schedule driven. Polychromic- doing mor than one thing at a time b/c time is flexible and multidimensional. Low context tend to run on monochronic and high context run on polychromic. Proxemics- Hall's term for the study of cultural expectations about interpersonal space. Four interpersonal distance zones- intimate, personal, social, public. North American businesses- three to four foot range for personal zone. One foot is common in Latin American and Asian cultures. Some arabs get even closer. Hofstede-Bond Research- (1) power distance- how much unequal distribution of power should there be in organizations and society? (2) Individualism-collectivism- how loosely or closely is the person socially bonded? (3) Masculinity-femininity- does the person embrace stereotypically competitive, performance-oriented masculine traits or nurturing, relationship-oriented feminine traits? (4) Uncertainty avoidance- how strongly does the person desire highly structured situations? How well do US management theories apply in other countries? Not very well. The US ranked relatively low on power distance, very high on individualism, moderately high on masculinity, and low on uncertainty avoidance. Conclusions- (1) Management theories and practices need to be adapted to local cultures. Particularly true for made in America Management theories and Japanese team management practices, (2) cultural arrogance is a luxury individuals, companies, and nations can no longer afford in a global economy. Globe Project's Nine Cultural Dimensions- power distance- how much unequal distribution of power should there be in organizations and society. Uncertainty avoidance- how much should people rely on social norms and rules to avoid uncertainty and limit unpredictability. Institutional collectivism- how much should leaders encourage and reward loyalty to the social unit, as opposed to pursuit of individual goals. In-group collectivism- how much pride and loyalty should people have for their family/organization. Gender egalitarianism- how much effort should be put into minimizing gender discrimination and role inequalities. Assertiveness- how confrontational and dominant should individuals be in social relationships. Future orientation- how much should people delay gratification by planning and saving for the future. Performance orientation- how much should people be rewarded for improvement and excellence. Humane orientation- how much should society encourage and reward people for being kind, fair, friendly, and generous. Globe Project's Leadership Lessions- Visionary and inspirational charismatic lead...
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This note was uploaded on 03/21/2008 for the course MAN 336 taught by Professor Edwards during the Spring '08 term at University of Texas.

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