Management Test 2 Review

Resource they underlead treat people like other

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Unformatted text preview: the manager knows, responds to, and acts for his customers Managers can make mistakes when: they fail to grasp the importance of people as key resource they underlead; treat people like other resources, numbers they are eager to direct and to control but unwilling to accept accountability Know each of the theories of leadership in: Trait Approaches- Personal characteristics that differential leaders from followers. (1) Stogdill and Mann's five traits--intelligence, dominance, self-confidence, level of energy, and task relevant knowledge. Intelligence was the best predictor of leadship, unfortunately, the overall pattern of the findings revealed that it did not accurately predict.(2) Leadership prototypes--mental representation of the traits and behaviors that people believe are possessed by leaders-- intelligence, masculinity, and dominance-- Robert Lord. (3) Kouzes and Posner's four traits--honesty, forwardlooking, inspiring, and competent. (4) Goleman- emotional intelligence. Leaders mood significantly influences the behaviors of followers. Leaders with high emotional intelligence are more likely to display emotions and moods that are consistent with followers.(5) Judge and colleagues--two meta-analyses: importance of extraversion, conscientiousness, and openness; importance of personality over intelligence. Extraversion was most consistently and positively related to both leadership emergence and effectiveness. Conscrientiousness and openness to experience also were positive. Concluded that personality is more important that intelligence. (6) Kellerman's bad traits--incompetent, rigid- are stiff and unyielding, intemperate- lacks self control, callous- are uncaring and unkind, corrupt- lie, cheat, steal, insular- minimize or disregard the health and welfare of others, and evil-commit atrocities. (7) Gender and Leadership- (1) Men and women were seen as displaying more task and social leadership, respectively. (2) Women used a more democratic or participative style than men, men used more autocratic and directive. (3) equally assertive. (4) women executives scored higher on a variety of effectiveness criteria. Behavioral Approaches- part of an effort to develop military leaders. Focuses on leader behavior instead of personality. Outgrowth of two events: unability of trait theory and human relations movement (hawthorne studies)- (1) Ohio State studies- two dimensions: initiating structure behavior- organizes and defines what group members should be doing to maximize output and consideration behavior- associated with creating mutual respect or trust and focuses on a concern for group members' needs and desires. Follower satisfaction, motivation, performance are associated with considerate and structuring leader behaviors. (2) U of Michigan--sought to identify behavioral differences between effective and ineffective leaders. two leadership styles: job centered and employee centered. Effective leaders (1) tend to have supportive or employee centered relationships with employees, (2) use group rather than individual methods of supervision, (3) set high performance goals. Contingency Approaches- propose that leader syles should match the situation at hand. (1) Fiedler's contingency model--oldest and most widely known model. A leader's style is either task oriented- focus on accomplishing goals, and relationship orientedmore interested in developing positive relationships with followers; and 3d of situational control- refers to the amount of control and influence the leader has in her or his immediate work environment. High control means the leader's decisions will produce predictable results and low control implies the decisions may not influence work outcomes: leader-member relations- extent that leader has the support, loyalty and trust, task structure-amount of structure contained, and position power-degree to which leader has formal power. Task motivated leaders have the most effective in situations of high control. Under conditions of moderate control- relationship motivated leaders are more effective. Task motivated leaders are more effective in low control. First criticism- LPC scale is not accurate, second criticism- the fact that research does not support predictions from the model. (2) House's path-goal revised theory--a model that describes how leadership effectiveness is described by the interaction between four leadership styles (directive, supportive, participative, achievement oriented) and a variety of contingency factors-situational variables that cause one style of leadership to be more effective than another. Eight leadership behaviors clarify paths for follower's goals- path-goal clarifying, achievement-oriented, work facilitation, supportive, interaction-facilitation, group-oriented decision making, representation and networking, and value-based behaviors; and employee characteristics- locus of control, task ability, need for achievement, experience, need for clarity and envi...
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This note was uploaded on 03/21/2008 for the course MAN 336 taught by Professor Edwards during the Spring '08 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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