i_Manufacturing.pdf - Pakistan Environment Protection...

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Pakistan Environment Protection Agency October 1997 Sectoral guidelines for environmental reports— Major chemical and manufacturing plants Contents Page 1. Introduction 3 1.1 Scope of guidelines 3 1.2 Context 4 1.3 Reference materials 4 2. Sector Overview 4 2.1 Operations 4 2.1.1 Production process 5 2.1.2 Clean production considerations 5 3. Potential impacts on the environment 5 3.1 Hazards 6 3.2 Waste discharges 7 3.3 Air emissions 8 3.4 Solid Waste 8 4. Mitigation measures 8 4.1 Site alternatives 8 4.2 Hazardous materials management 9 4.3 Water management 9 4.3.1 Water supply 9 4.3.2 Wastewater minimisation 9 4.3.3 Surface water; mitigation measure 10 4.3.4 Groundwater mitigation measures 10 4.3.5 Flood mitigation 10 4.4 Air emission; mitigation measures 11 4.5 Noise; mitigation measures 11 4.6 Traffic and transport issues 12 4.7 Aesthetics 12 4.8 Flora and fauna impact mitigation 13 5. Emission requirements 13 6. Monitoring and reporting 14 6.1 Baseline conditions 14 6.2 Monitoring 14 6.3 Analysis and review 16
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Major Chemical and 2 October 1997 Manufacturing Plants 7. Management and training 17 Appendices Description Page Appendix I Checklist of Environmental Parameters for Major Thermal Power Projects 18 Appendix II Illustrative Examples of Potential Negative Impacts Vs Specific Mitigation measures 19
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Major Chemical and 3 October 1997 Manufacturing Plants SECTORAL GUIDELINES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL REPORTS MAJOR CHEMICAL AND MANUFACTURING PLANTS 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Scope of Guidelines This guideline deals with major chemical and manufacturing plants. These plants may involve the production or storage of chemical substances (including reactive, toxic of flammable liquids, vapors, gases and solids) and may include the following operations: a) facilities with major distillation, filtration and dewatering processes b) drying, crushing, formulation, blending and packaging facilities c) storage facilities for raw materials, products and by-products, bulk storage facilities, stockpiles and dumps d) recycling facilities, and e) other manufacturing plants. Some of the industries to which these guidelines apply include: Petrochemicals Industry: These chemicals are based on petroleum, natural gas, or coal as raw material. The raw materials include; ethylene, methanol, ethanol, acetic acid, acetone, adipic acid, aniline, benzene, caprolactam, compounds from chlorine and fluorine with aliphatic or aromatic chemicals, dinitro- and trinitro-toluene, formaldehyde, and alcohols. Solid products include; synthetic resins, plastics and elastomers , rubber, melamine, nylon, polyester, polyolefins and polyvinylchlorides. Other products like cellulose and sugar based chemicals can also be accommodated in this group. Inorganic chemicals Industry: This may include the manufacture of chlorine/alkali, calcium carbide, inorganic acids, salts, phosphor compounds, hydrogen peroxide, inorganic pigments such as titanium dioxide, and metal salts.
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