Define diversity and review the four layers of diversity. Diversity represents the individual differences that make people different from and similar to each other. Diversity pertains to everybody. It is not simply an issue of age, race, gender, or sexual orientation. The layers of diversity define an individual's personal identity and constitute a perceptual filter that influences how we interpret the world. Personality is at the center of the diversity wheel. The second layer of diversity consists of a set of internal dimensions that are referred to as surface-level dimensions of diversity. The third layer is composed of external influences and are called secondary dimensions of diversity. The final layer of diversity includes organizational dimensions. D Explain the difference between affirmative action and managing diversity. Affirmative action is an outgrowth of equal employment opportunity legislation and is an artificial intervention aimed at giving management a chance to correct past discrimination. Managing diversity entails creating a host of organizational changes that enable all people to perform up to their maximum potential. D Explain the glass ceiling and the four top strategies used by women to break the glass ceiling. The glass ceiling is an invisible barrier blocking women and minorities from top management positions.The top four strategies used by women included the following: consistently exceed performance expectations, develop a style with which male managers are comfortable, seek out difficult or challenging assignments, and find influential mentors. D Review the demographic trends pertaining to racial groups, educational mismatches, and an aging workforce. With respect to racial groups, Asians and Hispanics are expected to have the largest growth in the population between 2000 and 2050, and minority groups will constitute 49.9% of the population in 2050. Minority groups also are experiencing a glass ceiling. There is a mismatch between workers' educational attainment and occupational requirements. The workforce is aging. D Highlight the managerial implications of increasing diversity in the workforce. There are seven broad managerial implications: ( a )To attract the best workers, companies need to adopt policies and programs that meet the needs of all employees; ( b ) managers should consider progressive methods to recruit, retain, and integrate Hispanic workers into their organizations; ( c ) mentoring programs are needed to help minorities advance within the organizational hierarchy; ( d
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