Interaction_revision bLack (002).doc

Interaction_revision bLack (002).doc - Teacher-Student...

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Teacher-Student interaction, empathy and its influence on learning in swimming lessons The bulk of interest in the role that interaction plays in learning in sport and physical education has fo- cused on peer interaction at the expense of teacher-student interaction. This article redresses this im- balance in the literature by reporting on a study that inquired into the nature of teacher-student interac- tion and its effect on learning in physical education swimming lessons in a French secondary school. Informed by an enactivist conceptualization of learning, it emphasizes the subjective dynamics of in- teraction to suggest that patterns of coordination should not be seen as being predetermined and deter- mining student learning but, instead, as forms of engagement that influence, and are influenced by, the dynamics of interaction. In doing so it suggests the pivotal importance of teacher empathy for student learning through interaction in physical education. Keywords : interaction; empathy; swimming; physical education; phenomenological psychology; enactivism; consensual domain Introduction Most of the interest in learning through interaction in sports and physical education has fo- cused on peer interaction at the expense of teacher-student interaction (see Barker, et al., 2013; Barker, Quennerstedt, Annerstedt, 2013; Barker, Barker-Ruchti & Pühse. 2013; Chen & Cone, 2003; Ensergueix & Lafont, 2010; Light & Wallian, 2008; Wright, Grenier, & Seaman, 1
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2010) Within the research that has been conducted on teacher-student interaction it is largely limited to a focus on the influence of teacher feedback on learning (see Nicaise & Cogérino, 2008). This work typically adopts quantitative and experimental, or quasi-experimental methodologies to study the effects of various structural variables of feedback on learning (e.g. Avila, Chiviacowky, Wulf, Lewthwaite, 2012; Badami, Vaezmousavi, Wulf & Namazizadeh, 2011; Sullivan, Kantak, Burtner, 2008; Van Vliet & Wulf, 2006; Vollemeyer & Rheinberg, 2005) with a focus on the link between teaching and learning in terms of determination in- stead of on dependency (Davis & Sumara, 2007). An example is provided by Sullivan, Kantak and Burtner’s (2008) study that sought to determine the effect that different relative frequen- cies of feedback had on skill acquisition in children compared with young adults by randomly assigning a hundred percent feedback and a reduced feedback group (62 faded) to a group of children and a group of adults with learning inferred from the performance of delayed reten- tion and reacquisition tests. In contrast to seeing teacher-student interaction as merely being a sequence of instruction delivered by teachers (Clanet, 2002) we see it as forms of dialogue, between learners and be- tween them and the teacher (or coach) from which learning emerges (Gal-Petitfaux, 2000; Light & Kental, 2013). Some recent attention has been paid to the use of questioning to gener- ate interaction but little specific attention has been paid to how the nature of interaction be- tween teacher and student shapes learning (Forrest, 2014; McNeill, Fry, Wright, Tan, & Rossi, 2008; Wright & Forrest, 2007). Given how teacher and student coordinate themselves during
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