PHYSIOLOGYOFALPINESKIINGreview_Apr2008No.4JK2015 (1).doc

PHYSIOLOGYOFALPINESKIINGreview_Apr2008No.4JK2015 (1).doc -...

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1 TITLE: Physiology of Alpine Skiing: A review AUTHORS 1,2 Jonathon Turnbull, 1 Andrew E. Kilding, 2 Justin Keogh 1 Institute of Sport and Recreation Research New Zealand, Faculty of Health and Environmental Sciences, AUT University, New Zealand 2 New Zealand Academy of Sport: Winter Performance Programme Corresponding Author Jonathon Turnbull , 34 Noema Terrace, RD 2, Lake Hawea, Wanaka, New Zealand. Ph. +64 21 2227246, Email: [email protected] Running Head: Physiology and Alpine Skiiing
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2 ABSTRACT ........................................................................................................................ 4 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................. 4 METHODS OF INVESTIGATION ................................................................................. 6 Measurement of Physical Capacities: .......................................................................... 6 LIMITATIONS AND FACTORS TO CONSIDER OF PREVIOUS RESEARCH ..... 9 Physiological Environment .......................................................................................... 9 Allometric Scaling ....................................................................................................... 9 Quantifying Subjects Abilities ..................................................................................... 9 Training Emphasis ..................................................................................................... 10 PHYSICAL CHARACTERSITICS OF SKI RACERS ................................................ 11 Aerobic Power ........................................................................................................... 11 Anaerobic Power ........................................................................................................ 12 Muscular Strength ...................................................................................................... 12 DEMANDS OF COMPETETIVE SKI RACING ......................................................... 14 Interdisciplinary Physiology ...................................................................................... 14 Seasonal Changes in Physiological Variables ............................................................ 15 Recovery versus Energy Provision ............................................................................ 15 Physiological Demands and Energy System Contributions ....................................... 15 Effects of Aerobic Training ........................................................................................ 16 Muscle physiology and mechanics ............................................................................ 17 Muscle Fatigue ........................................................................................................... 17 Influence of Muscle Fibre Type ................................................................................. 18 Factors affecting Aerobic Metabolism ....................................................................... 18 FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS ......................................................................... 20 CONCLUSIONS: ............................................................................................................. 21 REFERENCES: ............................................................................................................... 22 TABLES: ........................................................................................................................... 26 FIGURES: ........................................................................................................................ 32 Instructions to Authors .................................................................................................... 34
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3 ABSTRACT The sports of skiing involves a complex integration of many different physiological systems, none of which may be more important than the other to overall performance. This review comprises more than 30 years of research and includes 4 review articles, 9 off-snow investigations of the physiological capacities of ski racers of varying ability, 29 on-snow investigations of specific physiology relating to the various ski racing disciplines. The extreme environment of cold, altitude, and movement complexity make ski racing a difficult sport to study. Perhaps the most important understanding gained from investigation into the physiology of ski racing is that no single physiological variable can be identified as being more important than another. Whilst technical ability appears the greatest influencing factor, the ability to continually exhibit technical competence through a long competitive season requires high capabilities within all physiological systems, and the complex integration of training all these systems together should remain the focus of the sport scientists input. Further research is required using modern portable investigative tools for determining aerobic and anaerobic demands and abilities, especially in the areas of muscle function and relative energy system contribution during both single and multiple runs on varying terrain. Key Words: energy systems, muscle fatigue, muscle fibre, physiological capabilities, Ski racing.
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4 INTRODUCTION Alpine ski racing requires physical and technical competence. The more that is known about the physiological and biomechanical environments of world class ski racers, the more effectively we may direct our efforts to replicate and progress these qualities in our own athletes. Knowledge of the muscular forces and energy system usage in ski racing is
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