Biological Foundations .docx

Biological Foundations .docx - Biological Foundations Pages...

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Biological Foundations Pages 85-126 Explain how genetics and epigenetics influence development ID/describe 4 major processes of brain development Contrast experience-expectant + experience dependent processes Define behavioural genetics & describe common methodologies used (TEXTBOOK) Define heritability (TEXTBOOK) Discuss important processes and influences on physical development (TEXTBOOK) Summarize the main the main themes of The Ghost in Your Genes (MOVIE) DNA – molecules containing genetic information Chromosomes – long strands of DNA Genes – segments of DNA that control a specific aspect of a specific protein Genes code for proteins – lead to different traits Alleles = 2+ diff forms of a gene Genotype – underlying genetic make up on an individual @ conception – inherit chromosomes from parents – 50/50 mom + dad Phenotype – observable traits and behaviors of an individual organism (combo on genes) Explain how genetics and epigenetics influence development Gene expression Genes are not always active (can be turned on/off) when a gene is turned on it is part of development controlled by Regular Genes o E.g., Humans/Chimps have same gene for Jaws – but chimps gene stays on longer so their jaw grows longer Dominant/Recessive genes if 1 parent has blue eyes, other brown, you don’t receive the dominant brown eyes Additive genes Dark mom/light skin dad = kid somewhere in the middle – height is also an example of an additive gene Polygenic inheritance several different genes contribute to the phenotype Mutation – change that occurs in sections of DNA Random assortment – which genes you get from which parent *** Brown + Green eyes = additive genes *** *** Blue + Brown eyes = Dominant/Recessive ***
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Child’s environment contributes to his/her phenotype o Environment = everything not in the genetic material E.g., Plants that have all the same genetics – turn out different – based on how they were raised Some children grow up in maltreatment homes develop anti-social personality – yet some don’t – WHY? – combo of genes + environment (inactive MAOA gene) Child’s phenotype impacts his/her environment o Different children inspire different responses o Who choose our environments + we shape our own environments and this impacts who we are… [active child] Child’s environment impacts his/her genotype o Epigenetics study of changes in gene expression caused by mechanisms other than gene sequences E.g., of mechanism = Diet; lifestyle (gene expression = whether they are turned on/off) o PKU – example were certain food = cognitive impairment Building blocks of the brain: Neuron transmit info sensory/motor/interneurons o Synapses Connect between neurons Glial cells support/protect neurons o
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