6.pptx - POLLUTION POLLUTION Any undesirable change in the...

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POLLUTION
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POLLUTION “Any undesirable change in the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the environment (air, water, soil) which can cause harmful effects on various life forms or property” (Or ) Pollution is the introduction of harmful substances or products into the environment 2 1. Air Pollution 2. Water Pollution 3. Noise Pollution 4. Soil Pollution 5. Marine Pollution 6. Thermal Pollution 7. Nuclear Pollution Types of Pollution
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AIR POLLUTION Air pollution may be described as “the imbalance in quality of air so as to cause adverse effects on the living organisms existing on earth”. Air pollution is generally disequilibrium condition of air caused due to the introduction of foreign elements from natural & man made sources to the air so that it becomes injurious to biological communities.
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CLASSIFICATION: Air pollutants may occur in gaseous or particular form and may be organic or inorganic in nature. PRIMARY POLLUTANTS: These are emitted directly from the point source Eg:-CO,NO X , SO x, Radioactive substances, Hydrocarbons. SECONDARY POLLUTANTS: These are formed by interaction of primary pollutants with other pollutants Eg:-O 3 , Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), Photochemical smog 5
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Some primary air pollutants may react with one another or with other chemicals in the air to form secondary air pollutants.
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Composition of unpolluted air GASES Nitrogen Oxygen Water Argon Carbon dioxide Neon Helium Methane Krypton Nitrous oxide Hydrogen Xenon Organic vapors PARTS PER MILLION(VOL) 756,500 202,900 31,200 9,000 305 17.4 5.0 0.97-1.16 0.97 0.49 0.49 0.08 Ca.0.02
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Major air pollutants are Carbon monoxide Carbon dioxide Chlorofluorocarbons Lead Ozone Nitrogen oxide Suspended particulate matter Sulphurdioxide
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Photochemical Smog Hydrocarbons + NO x + sunlight → Photochemical smog (oxidants) Primary oxidants produced: ozone (O 3 ) formaldehyde peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN)
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Causes of Air Pollution 1. NATURAL SOURCES of air pollution are volcanic eruptions, forest fires etc 2. MAN MADE sources include thermal power plants, industrial units, vehicular emissions, fossil fuel burning, Agricultural activities etc 3. Automobile engines, incomplete combustion of fuels in furnaces.
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