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examreview - Water scarcity- Water is scarce in the Middle...

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Unformatted text preview: Water scarcity- Water is scarce in the Middle East, India, and N. Africa- Vegas has a growing population; least water entering city- There has been an increase in withdrawals in US and Asia Water used for:- Agriculture (most) -- 1- Industrial -- 3- Reservoirs -- 4- Domestic (most waste) -- 2 Water Budget- Input Output = Delta Storage o Precipitation (Evaporation + Runoff) = Delta Storage- Globally, water is in equilibrium (different areas change)- Shows how much is in soil-moisture zone (hydrologic bank) o Where water is stored- Potential: what COULD evaporate under optimum conditions- Actual: what is allowed to evaporate When Water Reaches Surface:- Water either flows over the land or soaks into the soil- Infiltration: soaking into subsurface (short term)- Percolation: water further permeates downward (long term)- Evapotranspiration: water evaporated from soil or vegetation- Runoff: water flows overland o Highest amount at equator (ITCZ) Aquifers- Groundwater: largest potential freshwater source o Tied to infiltration (if polluted, irreversible) o Slow moving- Groundwater mining: confined aquifer is pumped beyond flow and recharge capacities. o Permanent removal- Unconfined Aquifer: easy to recharge; pollutants can easily enter o Wells, springs- Aquiclude: clay layer; makes pressure. Confined aquifer o 2 water tables; not as easily polluted o Artesian wells, harder to get to- Drawdown: water table lowered. The faster you pump, the greater the drawdown. (Cone of depression pump, the greater the drawdown....
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examreview - Water scarcity- Water is scarce in the Middle...

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