lecture #03 (1).docx - Lecture 3 Early medieval Kazakhstan...

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Lecture # 3 Early medieval Kazakhstan VI-XII c. Feudal states on the territory of Kazakhstan Turkic Khaganate History of Turkic Khaganate started about 1 thousand AD. Formation of Kaganate was consequence of the Great Migration of people in the 2-5 centuries. Firstly ethnonym “Turk” was mentioned in Chinese scriptures in 542. In 546 one of the stronger tribe conquered the tribe that called Tele. It was a tribe of Turkic. The word “Turkic” translated from Arab language as a “strong people”. In 522 a head of Turkic tribes Bumyn had fought against Avaries (tribes) and conquered them. Bumyn made Turkic (Turkish) stronger; he formed new state- Turkic Khaganate. During 6 century all the land, Turkic Khaganate conquered tribes of Kazakhstan and neighboring countries. There were Kidanies from Manchuria, Kyrgizes from Yenisei, Uyghurs from the North of China, Oguzes from Tien-Shan. Then Turkics went to Middle Asia and captured territories between Amy and Syr- Darya. So they became a head of the Great Silk Road and a very strong state. But after the death of Mukhan-kagan began wars between his sons: Istemy and Turcsanf-kagan. Consequence of internecine wars was dividing territories of Khaganate into two parts: Western Turkic and Eastern Turkic Khaganates. Territories of Kazakhstan were included into the Western Khaganate. The capital was Suyab - one of the biggest towns in Semirechye, now it’s Tokmak in Kyrgizia, the summer residence of Khaganat was Ming-Bulak(near Turkestan). All the power of state was concentrated in the hands of Kagan - a head of the state, a chief of army. Tribes of the state were divided into two main levels: aristocratic noble and vassal tribes. Only nobles had elite name as so as Yagbu, Alteber, and Shad. All the inhabitants were cattle-breeders and named Karabudun. In 610-630 the other Kagans of Khaganate sent their troops to plunder and conquer neighboring countries again and again. Turkic’s warriors devastated foreign territories, captured slaves. So they conquered Afghanistan, Tokharistan. But strong khaganate was fall. Cause of falling were internecine wars chiefs of tribes. Gradually, army of Tan Empire captured Turkic Khaganate. The main occupation of tribes in Kaganates was settled agriculture and nomadic cattle-breeding. There was no equality among people. Kagan was above everybody, had better and lot of received private property on pastures. So fundamentals economics of Turkic were cattle-breeding and hunting. The writers of Middle Age tell about cultivation of vineyard and orchards on the territory of Semirechye. Turgeshes Kaganates 703-756 In 704 Semyrechye was conquered by the tribes of Turgeshes. Kagan Uch- Alik formed new state stretched from Shash (today Tashkent) to Turfan. The
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capital of Turgeshes Khaganate was Suyab and the second center of state was settlement Kungut on Ili-river. All the territory of Khaganate was divided into 20 udels (region).Each region consisted of seven thousands warriors.
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