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lecture #04 (1).docx - Lecture 4 Mongolian invasions to...

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Lecture # 4 Mongolian invasions to Kazakhstan Disintegration of the Mongol Empire and foundation of Hordes 1. Foundation of the Mongol Empire. In the half of the XII c. Mongol tribes directed to the West from Orkhon River and Kerulen. Mongols placed on the territory from Baikal Lake, banks of Yenisei and Irtysh Rivers on the north to the desert Gobi. In the end of the XII c. Mongol tribes disintegrated and classes formed. Rulers of tribes captured lands, pastures, slaves. Endless wars between Mongols and Turkic tribes – Mongols, Kereits, Naimans, Tatars, Kongrats and others finished at the beginning of the XIII c. When Mongol Empire was founded, this was headed by Chingiz-khan. Temuchin was born in 1155 (1162) in the family of the famous representative Mongol nobility – Yesugey – bagatur. He lost his father in the childhood (when he was 9 years old). But the Heaven’s way unknown. He organized a group of confident fellows and became as brave man due to lucky campaigns. He was one of the powerful leaders in Central Asian steppes. In 1206 was formed Mongol Empire. Kurultai (meeting) of noble proclaimed Temuchin as a Khan of the Mongol state and gave him new name Chenghis-khan. Chengis-khan became famous and gloomy person in the history of the world. He organized big army and conquered half of the world, destroyed many towns, killed people, the result of his invasion were the braking of development economy of countries. Mongol state was formed on the principles of military-administrative organization. Territory and population were divided in three military-administrative okrugs: Barun gar, Djun gar and Cul. Each okrug consist of Tumens (10 thousand), each thousand – of 10 hundreds. Lowest unit is “ten”- when the group of nomadic tribes were obliged to give 10 warriors. Conquests of Mongols started in the beginning of XIII c. In the 1211-1215 Chenghiz-khan conquered the Northern China with the capital Beijin (Peking). Mongols recognized military technology machines and brought it to Mongolia and it improved military power of army. Chenghiz-khan had all information about state, which he wants to conquer, which received from traitors, from Muslim merchants. Naimans and Mongol-speaking tribe – Merkits were defeated in 1208 on the Irtysh bank. Naimans, who saved moved with their khan Kuchlug to Zhetysu (Karakitay’s land) and Merkits to Kypchacs into the steppe of Central Kazakhstan. In 1218 – the Naimans, Kereits, Karluks became the vassals of Mongolia In 1218 Semyrechye was taken. The pretext for the army offensive was “Otrar tragedy”. Khorezm-shakh sent two missions to Mongolia. Chenghiz-khan sent a trade caravan to Khorezm-shakh. The caravan arrived to Otrar in summer1218. The governor of Otrar Kypcak Gair-khan Inalchik suspected merchants in espionage and ordered to kill them and plundered the caravan. This incident became a reason of Chenghis-khan’s war against Khorezm. Military campaign began in September of 1219. The army of Chengiz-khan consisted of 120-150 thousand warriors. In 1219-1221 Chenghiz-khan invaded to Khorezm. Army of Mongols moved
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