4023 02 - Galaxy-Solar System-Earth.pptx

4023 02 - Galaxy-Solar System-Earth.pptx - GEO 4023...

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Galaxy – Solar System - Earth GEO 4023 Engineering Geology
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How do we know what we know?
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THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD The scientific method (or simply scientific method) is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge. To be termed scientific, a method of inquiry must be based on empirical and measurable evidence subject to specific principles of reasoning
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THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD Make an Observation or ask a question Do background research Formulate a Hypothesis Design an Experiment to test your hypothesis Analyze the data and draw conclusions Over time and repeated testing, you hypothesis may become a Theory.
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THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD Hypotheis - A hypothesis is an educated guess, based on observation. A hypothesis can be disproven, but not proven to be true. Theory - A theory summarizes a hypothesis or group of hypotheses that have been supported with repeated testing. A theory is valid as long as there is no evidence to dispute it. Law - A law generalizes a body of observations. At the time it is made, no exceptions have been found to a law.
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How did we get here? Where did we come from?
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ORIGIN OF THE UNIVERSE
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EARLY THEORIES Aristotle (384 BC – 322 BC) Greek philosopher and polymath 350 BC - On The Heavens Heavenly bodies are the most perfect realities (or “substances”) whose motion is ruled by principals other than those of bodies in the sublunary sphere. (Sublunary sphere consists of the classical elements earth, water, air and fire). He called the heavens aether. Earth was a round sphere at the center of the universe. The heavens motion around the Earth occurred in a perfect circular motion.
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EARLY THEORIES Clausius Ptolemy (90AD – 168 AD) Greco-Roman Writer, mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer 200AD - Planetary Hypothesis Stated that the universe was a set of nested spheres. Tabulated the data needed to compute the positions of the Sun, Moon and planets He “tweaked” the Aristotle model - 8 spheres around the earth (moon, sun, stars, 5 planets)
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EARLY THEORIES Nicolaus Copernicus (1479-1543) Renaissance mathematician and astronomer 1514 - Commentariolus (“Little Commentary”) 1543 De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (“On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres”) Described his ideas about the heliocentric hypothesis. (Seven assumptions) 2. The center of the earth is not the center of the universe, but only of gravity and of the lunar sphere. 3. All the spheres revolve around the sun as their midpoint, and therefore the sun is the center of the universe.
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EARLY THEORIES Thyco Brahe (1546-1601) Danish Nobleman known for his astronomical and planetary observations 1573 D e nova stella (On the new star) Refuted the Aristotelian belief in an unchanging universe. He made measurements that indicated there were ‘new stars’.
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