4023 21 - Dams and Resevoirs (1).pptx

4023 21 - Dams and Resevoirs (1).pptx - GEO 4023...

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Dams & Reservoirs GEO 4023 Engineering Geology
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US Army Corps of Engineers Reservoirs
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Flood Control Capacity Lake Mead Total storage capacity of 36,700 million m 3 Active capacity of 21,405 million m 3 If influent Colorado river flow under flood conditions is 1800 m 3 /s but water is only released downstream through the spillway at 600 m 3 /s, how long could the flood last before the reservoir reaches total capacity?
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Amistad Reservoir, Del Rio, Texas 1987 2000
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Purposes of Dams and Reservoirs Water storage Flood control Hydroelectric power River canalization Silt and debris control Recreation Multipurpose
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Water Use from Reservoir Storage Off-stream use – water supply (domestic, municipal, industrial, or irrigation) In-stream use – hydroelectric power generation, navigation, recreation
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Earth Fill Embankment Dam New Waddell, Arizona Most common b/c materials are available at the site Must have low enough permeability to limit excessive water flow through dam
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Gravity Dam Grand Coulee, Washington Franklin D. Roosevelt Reservoir Typically concrete construction Resist the force of water in the reservoir with the weight of the concrete structure
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Buttress Dam Sefid-Rud, Iran Requires 1/3 to 1/2 as much concrete as gravity dams of similar height Used on foundations too weak to support a gravity dam Buttresses – load bearing supporting members
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Arch Dam Require less material than any other type of dam Best in narrow, rocky canyons Horizontal load is transferred to the abutments El Atazar Dam, Spain
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Shasta Dam, California - Sacramento River
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What to do with too much water? Overflow – designed for water to flow over all or part of the top of the dam Nonoverflow – engineered spillways that divert water around the dam to prevent overtopping and erosion Goal is to not damage the dam or reservoir walls or erode the foundation toe of the dam
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Spillway Types Overflow – section of dam where water flows over the crest Chute – channel located along an abutment or upgradient in the reservoir Side-channel – water flows over the dam into a channel running parallel to the dam Shaft – water drops through a vertical shaft to a horizontal conduit through the dam
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Chute Spillway - Taylor Park Dam, Colorado
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Shaft spillway
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