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outline1 - ** ribosomes free in the cytoplasm proteins made...

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Unformatted text preview: ** ribosomes free in the cytoplasm proteins made here stay inside the cell The process of science I. Discovery Science A. What is it? Descriptive sciences Discovery of new info based on what we can record, observe, measure B. Examples 1. Descriptive anatomy 2. animal behavior C. Inductive reasoning Specific observations and measurements -> general hypothesis and theories (reasoning from specific observation) II. Hypothesis-Driven Science (Scientific Method) A. What is it? Discovery beginning with a specific question Use controlled experiments to answer the question B. The steps: 1. observations 2. question 3. hypothesis (tentative answer to our question) 4. prediction (if-then phrase) 5. perform a controlled (treated/untreated) Only one variable being tested. The only difference = one variable 6. results 7. conclusion 1 ** ribosomes free in the cytoplasm proteins made here stay inside the cell C. Mimicry example 1. Observations a. jumping spiders wave their legs around. Competing spiders, who then retreat b. flies, when approached by spiders wave their wings at spiders 2. Question what is the function of the wing markings and the behavior of the flies 3. Hypothesis wing markings prevent pouncing by the spider 4. Prediction if the wing markings prevent pouncing the masking the markings should increased the pounce rate by the spider 5. Controlled experiment a. experimental group masked wings (sharpie marker) b. control group- normal snowberry flies c. measure- pounce rate by spiders 6. Results a. experimental group- 38% pounce rate b. control group 20% pounce rate 7. Conclusion- The data supports our hypothesis (wing markings prevent pouncing) 2 ** ribosomes free in the cytoplasm proteins made here stay inside the cell D. Deductive Reasoning reasoning from general theory to explain specific observations or results E. Scientific Theory a hypothesis has not been disproved after years of rigorous testing 3 ** ribosomes free in the cytoplasm proteins made here stay inside the cell UNIT 1: CELL BIOLOGY Macromolecules I. Introduction to macromolecules in the cell A. What is an organic compound? Compound containing carbon (makes four bonds) Usually bonded with hydrogen and oxygen (sometimes sulfur and nitrogen) B. Four major macromolecules in the cell 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) C. Macromolecules consist of: Monomers (basic unit) polymers D. Condensation reaction (aka dehydration synthesis)- Monomers are joined to form polymers (water is lost to the environment) E. Hydrolysis- Breaking polymers into monomers Water must be added to the molecules from the environment II. Carbohydrates A. Monomers (simple sugars) Mono saccharides (one sugar) 1. Chem. formula: Some multiple of CH2O 2. Glucose C6H12O6; major fuel for cells (Brain cells are very dependent on) 3. Fructose C6H1206; doesnt have the same chemical structure as glucose (corn syrup) 4. Galactose4....
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outline1 - ** ribosomes free in the cytoplasm proteins made...

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