Topic 3 : Micronutrients Minerals Lesson 1 : Minerals I Video 1: - The ocean: o There are a great variety of soluble minerals that are dissolved in the ocean 60 ml of water taken from the shores of New Jersey. There was 3.5% of salt/mineral material that’s dissolved in most of the oceans in the world Galapagos: Took a mole of water (1 mole = 6 x 10 23 molecules of water), namely 18 grams of water very carefully weighed. This many molecules of water similarly on a hot plate and slowly let it evaporate down to the salts that were there There was 10% more than was in the sample off the coast of New Jersey o Reason for this in that there's very little fresh water that flows out of the Galapagos Islands & it’s hot all year long Dead Sea: The percentage of salt materials that are in the Dead Sea is about 32% Visitors can come & float easily in this buoyed up by the salt concentration Video 2: - Representations for calcium, magnesium, and sodium : o They have outer electrons that can be quite easily removed, so we will remove these electrons and give the charges that these normally have: Calcium and Magnesium has 2 ++ and sodium has 1 + They are combining with a variety of negatively charged species, such as bicarbonate (HCO 3 ), chloride (Cl), and sulfate (SO 4 ) - If we just isolate calcium (Ca) and sulfate (SO 4 ) , you can see that the charges will balance this makes the mineral Gypsum (white in powder form) - If we isolate magnesium (Mg) and sulfate (SO 4 ) , we get Epsom Salts - Then, we have the calcium (Ca) with bicarbonate (HCO 3 ) – the HCO 3 minus
- This requires two negative charges as seen in the formulation BUT that molecule decomposes quite readily into calcium carbonate, carbon dioxide, and water . And the calcium carbonate that is deposited turns into limestone o This is how limestone gets precipitated in a variety of contexts in the world - However, in nature, the combinations are quite varied o Ex : Dolomite (CaCO 3 /MgCO 3 ) – which is a mineral of a mixture of calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate often co-crystallizes with other minerals such as Cinnabar (HgS) , or mercury sulfide Cinnabar was for years used as vermilion , which is of a paint pigment Now, ppl don’t use it anymore b/c of the mercury toxicity so there are other replacements for that - However, in health food stores it's possible to buy what can be called dolomite, which is a source of magnesium and calcium minerals as a supplement possibility o BUT, the problem with the cinnabar is that it's typical of what mineral minorities can be present and that can, in some cases, be toxic One tablet contains: 158 mg of calcium 75 mg of magnesium 2.81 mg of iron (small amount is present) - However, it's been widely understood for some time that on occasion, dolomite , as it is called (as a source for magnesium and calcium) may well have arsenic, mercury, aluminum or lead as trace elements in this - The vertical columns of the periodic table represent those elements that tend to have similar properties: o
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