SECTION 1 ● Facts are verifiable events and developments ● Opinions are speculations or intuitions about how and why such developments have taken place ● George Orwell: WWII writer, how to differentiate from different sources ● Why was democracy successful in Germany and Japan, and why is it failing in Afghanistan and Iraq? ● What is the difference between the conditions in Germany and Japan in the 1940s and in Afghanistan and Iraq today? ○ FACTORS ■ Legacy of ethnic and religious rivalry ● Japan and Germany: generally homogeneous society (pure blood, nationalists) that never caused conflict ● Iraq and Afghanistan: mixed religions and ethnic groups ■ Legacy of conflict with foreign powers ● Japan: faced loss in wars, Germany: didn’t have a choice in WWII other than to accept their failure and choice to surrender ■ History of democratic governance ● Japan and Germany have prior democracy roots ■ Political accountability ● Japan and Germany have little to no corruption, unlike Iraq and Afghanistan ■ Location and Territory ● G&J are more manageable, infrastructure, better roads, and better location (Japan isolated), I&A are the “borders of porters” Middle East ■ International Support ● Occupations of Iraq and Afghanistan caused significant criticism globally, unlike the occupied times of Japan and Germany ● The Next Pattern of Conflict ● Nature of Civilizations: evolving, allow us to identify large groups of people with symbols ● Why civilizations will clash? ● The fault lines between civilizations ● The Kin-Country Syndrome ● The West VS The Rest ● The Torn Countries ● The Confucian-Islamic Connection ● Implications for the West ● People of different civilizations have different views on: ○ Relations between God and people ○ The individual and the group ○ Citizen and state ○ Parents and children ○ Husband and wife ○ Rights and responsibilities ○ Liberty and authority ○ Equality and hierarchy ● Civilizations according to Scholar Huntington
○ Western, Confucian, Japanese, ISlamic, Hindu, Slavic-Orthodox, Latin American and possibly African civilization ● The Sykes-Picot Agreement, or the Asia Minor Agreement (1916), was a secret deal between the UK, France and Russia, defining their proposed spheres of influence and control in the Middle East ● Middle East, Lebanon that came apart first ● Clans competed in Syria, Assad ruled the country and an uprising threw the Alawites in threat ● Why do North and South Korea remain enemies? Communist VS Democracy ○ A clash of Civilizations? ○ A “kin-country” syndrome? ● Ukraine Conflicts ○ Ukraine is consisted of different ethnic groups and languages ○ Ukraine Feb 2014: A violent revolt, president flees ○ Russia annexes Crimea: Referendum March 2014 ■ Is this a “clash” within the Slavic Civilization?