1.31.2018 Children in homeless families handout.pdf

1.31.2018 Children in homeless families handout.pdf - 2017...

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Unformatted text preview: 2017 Risk and Resilience in Homeless and Highly Mobile Children youth homelessness concentrated in Minneapolis area - is a very big issue very little research was done on children The beginning… 1980s - awareness 1988 - invitation 1989 - first study 1990s - series of small collaborative studies Art by Donna Miliotis Cumulative risk direct relationship between risk factors and behavioral problems Behavior problems 80 Risk Factors 70 Low education 60 Single parent 50 Parent died Parents divorced 40 Foster care 30 0 1 2 3 4 Risk Level 5 6 Maltreatment Saw violence Masten & Sesma 1999 1 2017 Achievement Academic achievement 90 although there were risks, there were still some protective factors parents can be overwhelmed/depressed, but other parents who took in support and looked after their kids better parenting involvement and quality had kids who were doing better in school 85 80 75 Low Medium High Parent Involvement in Education Conclusions from early work • Homelessness indicates high cumulative risk • High risk for health, school, behavior problems • Homeless similar to other disadvantaged families but higher on a risk continuum • Variation in risk and function among homeless children • Resilience related to parenting, cognitive skills Recent research • New concerns • New opportunities • Translational goals • Fully collaborative thought problem would be resolved fairly quickly with research “temporary” - 25 years past, and problems are still occuring In 2010/2011 over one million American school children were identified as homeless by Federal guidelines 2 2017 school districts have been gathering better data for further research Analyzing administrative data THE BIG PICTURE Reading scores 2005 to 2009 26,501 students Low risk (25%) …Reduced price (4%) Nat test norm Free meals (57%) HHM (14%) HHM: Homeless, highly moblile group - homeless at one point - avg: 12th percentile reduced price are closer to national avg: lower risk for reading problems than kids on free meals those who are low risk, are significantly above in %ile 75% achievement gap!! 46% 21% 12% Cutuli et al 2013 Child Development Reading score HHM student individual reading scores N>3000 individual scores: about 40% of the kids are near average %ile shows that everykid isnt doing poorly, but many are doing well in both reading and math National avg What makes a difference? 3 2017 MATH 26,474 students 76th achievement gap widens for math in comparison to reading General Math score Norm & RPM 79th Free meals HHM th 12 18th percentile avg score Additional findings the year after identifying kids as homeless, learning tended slow down due to being homeless • 45% of HHM show academic resilience – Scoring in the normal range or higher all tests • Slow down in growth related to HHM status – Comparing year following HHM with other years – Growth rate in math (but not reading) slows – Consistent with acute disturbance as well as chronic risk What makes a difference? • Attendance schools do measure attendance: can be useful in understanding why someone isn’t learning as much if they are not present kids who were disadvantaged in some way could also explain some of the difference • Minority status • English language learner • Earlier achievement 4 2017 one minute reading test in 1st grade could predict how kids would do later on in 3/4th grade shows how quickly children can learn within the first couple years of their schooling First grade reading skills • Shows a similar risk gradient • Predicts later achievement and growth in math and reading • Shows protective effects for high-risk students (interactions) on free lunch or homeless High Low Herbers et al 2012 Educational Researcher big protective factors: quality of parenting, self regulation skills, hopefulness A CLOSER LOOK AT WHAT MAKES A DIFFERENCE Measuring stress and adversity many physical attributions • Exposure to stressful experiences – Life event measures • Perceived stress • Physiological indicators of stress – – – – Cortisol (eg from saliva and hair) Arousal measures (eg heart rate) RNA related to stress reactions (eg saliva) Immune system (eg blood spots) 5 2017 ACES Adverse Childhood Experiences • Ten items of childhood adversity (0-18 years) – – – – – – – – – – Verbal Abuse Physical Abuse Sexual Abuse Emotional Neglect Physical Neglect Parental Divorce/Separation Domestic Violence Parental Substance Use Parental Mental Illness Parental Incarceration CDC (2012) Percentage of Specific ACEs in Minneapolis Homeless Parents vs MN Adult Sample Abuse and Neglect Physical Abuse/Neglect Sexual Abuse Emotional Neglect/Verbal Abuse Household Dysfunction Mental Illness Divorce/Separation Domestic Violence Parental Incarceration Homeless Parents MN Adults 39% 32% 58% 16% 10% 28% 22% 49% 29% 18% 17% 21% 14% 7% Minnesota Department of Health (2011) Percentage of Specific ACEs in Minneapolis Homeless Parents vs Children 6 2017 Executive function skills (EF) Neurocognitive processes involved in goaldirected control of attention, thought, actions self-control Needed to succeed in school pay attention control emotions wait turn follow instructions listen to teacher switch activities Why EF? • Resilience • Learning • Stress • Good parenting • Develop rapidly in preschool • Malleable Age graph courtesy of Stephanie Carlson Take a look at some EF measures for little kids: Stroop for adults words and colors - measure of control of attention Day Night Stroop 7 2017 studies focus and distractions New executive function measures sorting task: switch rules: cognitive flexibility and self control DCCS Flanker Resilient children with good academic and social function at school have better EF skills 0.5 assessed group of kids about kids and how well they were doing in the clas and how they were behaving 0.46 0.4 Obradović 2010 Masten et al 2012 0.3 shows huge difference between executive measures 0.2 0.1 0 ‐0.1 Resilient ‐0.2 Maladaptive ‐0.3 ‐0.33 ‐0.4 ‐0.5 Resilient Maladaptive Screening Study • Summers of 2012 and 2013 • Active consent with unique identifier to follow through grade 3 – 606 children, over 90% participation • Executive function tasks added to routine screening – Peg Tapping and CBQ EF module – Computerized DCCS and Flanker (English only) • Convergent and concurrent validity – Correlation .76 for EF with MPSI-R (N=471) • Promising predictive value – Predicts achievement - but so does MPSI-R – Unique value in predicting behavior in school 8 2017 Sample of findings • Executive function task performance – Predicts “child on task” observations – Predicts school success over & above IQ – Related to good parenting – Mediates relation of parenting to school outcomes as they expected, link between parenting and doing well on executive functioning tasks saliva was measured to watch stress hormones and see how they were responding • Cortisol (a stress hormone; salivary) – Related to worse child executive function (EF) • Parenting – Correlate and protective factor for achievement – Related to parent EF as well child EF skills • Asthma – High rates (28%) – Related to academic and behavior problems Can we promote resilience? Interventions to consider • Reduce risk and stress – Prevent homeless episodes – Stabilize housing and schooling – Reduce hunger and food insecurity • Increase resources – Access to quality programs, housing, health care – High quality education (starting early) – Tutoring and summer programs • Promote protective processes – Effective parenting – Executive function skills – Teacher-child relationships 9 2017 Intervention Executive Function School readiness Risk Ready? Set. Go! promoting school readiness in homeless and highly mobile students by improving executive function skills collabortative with teachers from diff schools, programs, etc and parents to help students regulate behavior prior to starting shcool Collaborative • Developed in context – Focus groups with local educators – Insight and expertise from cooperating teachers – Focus groups and feedback from parents • Design team – Teachers & researchers from U of M, community – Pooled expertise • Community Advisory Board 10 2017 Teachers learn multiple strategies… • to support students’ EF skills – Giving hints & assistance – Clarifying & expanding students’ responses – Encouraging & affirming students’ use of EF • to use language to boost EF by… – – – – Prompting students to explain their thinking Using open-ended questions Repeating & extending students’ answers Using self & parallel talk Windows of Early Opportunity • Preventing stress • Protecting brain development • Promoting tools for learning • Supporting parents games, songs, activities, family sessions to help parents interact with parents, reading games, how to support, individual support Conclusions from recent HHM studies • HHM is a window on risks, barriers, safety gaps • Mobile children key for closing achievement gaps • Executive function skills central to school success • Promoting resilience is possible • Collaboration is crucial 11 ...
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  • Fall '17
  • Gail Simpson
  • Parent, Psychological resilience, Executive Function, Executive Function skills

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