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Review Sheet Exam 2Sociology 134: How Race and Ethnicity Shape American Social LifeReading Notes:i.“Jim Crow 2.0? Why States Consider and Adopt Restrictive Voter Access Policies” – Bentele and O’Brien“history rarely moves in simple, straight lines, and the history of suffrage is no exception”’Since the mid 2000’s, many types of policies that have been proposed and adopted in various states include: required photo identification or proof of citizenship to vote, more stringent regulation of groups or individuals who aim to register new voters, shortened early voting periods, repeal of same day voter registration, and increased restrictions on voting by felons.By state, very widespread: more regulations are proposed in the south due to a few active states (Texas, Mississippi, Tennessee, Massachusetts) , southern statesvary significantly Passed at rates far lower than they are proposedPassed more frequently in the south and in battleground states like Ohio and FloridaAt least one restrictive change passed in half of all statesWe argue that the republican party has engaged in strategic demobilization efforts in response to changing demographics, shifting electoral fortunes, and aninternal rightward ideological drift among the party faithfulOne the left: these policies are typically vilified as thinly veiled attempts by republicans to depress turnout among constituencies deemed favorable to the democratic party: minorities, new immigrants, the elderly, the disabled, and the youngoRepublican officials have launched an unprecedented, centrally coordinated campaign to suppress the elements of the Democratic vote that elected Barack Obama in 2008. Just as Dixiecrats once used poll taxes and literacy tests to bar black Southerners from voting, a new cropof GOP governors and state legislators has passed a series of seemingly disconnected measures that could prevent millions of students, minorities, immigrants, ex-convicts and the elderly from casting ballots.Republican politicians and their allies assert that restrictive voter access legislation is intended to prevent or curtail rampant electoral fraud to preserve the legitimacy and integrity of the electoral process oEmphasize the possibilities or invitation for fraud in voting rolls that include deceased individuals, fraud friendly registration laws and absentee ballots as tool of choice for those attempting voter fraud
oThose who participate in vote fraud tend to lean democratic: a poor person has more incentive to sell his vote than an upper class suburbaniteIt is hard to imagine a more demeaning statement about black America than labeling demands that all voters show a photo id anti-blackOn the right, they are a necessary response to rampant electoral fraud perpetrated by Democrats and allied organizations. On the left, restrictive-accesslegislation is seen as a strategic attempt to reduce turnout amongst Democratic-leaning voters.