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Unformatted text preview: U.S. History I: United States History 1607-1865 Text for History 121 Northern Virginia Community College Extended Learning Institute Third Edition Revised and Updated, June 2010 Associate Professor Henry J. Sage Academic American History 10509 Old Colchester Road Lorton, Virginia 22079 Copyright © Henry J. Sage, 2007-2010 i This text by Henry J. Sage is published by Academic American History through Lulu, Inc., an online, print-on-demand service ( ). The text is based on the web site created by the author at Northern Virginia Community College (NVCC), 1995-2008. The history content is also located at , a web site maintained by the author. This edition of the text is structured for History 121, Early American History, taught online through the NVCC Extended Learning Institute. It may be updated and augmented during the course of each semester. Announcements about all updates affecting NVCC courses will be posted on the course web site and linked from the NVCC Blackboard course management system. The content parallels From Colonies to Free Nation: United States History 1607-1865, also available through Lulu. Students who purchase this text should be aware that while all course content is contained herein, they should nevertheless check for announcements in Blackboard regularly for additions or changes in assignments. Links to additional support pages may be found on the course web site at . Email the author/instructor: [email protected] H.J. Sage Copyright © 2007-2010 Henry J. Sage Printed in the United States of America. All rights reserved. Published by Academic American History 10509 Old Colchester Road Lorton, Virginia 22079 About the Author: Henry J. Sage is professor emeritus of history at Northern Virginia Community College. He received his B.S. in Engineering in 1962 from the United States Naval Academy. He earned a Diplom in German Language, Culture and History from the University of Heidelberg in 1968, an M.A. in History from Clark University in 1974, and an M.A. in American Literature from the University of Maryland in 1986. He has taught history at The College of the Holy Cross, the University of Maryland (Far East Division) and at George Mason University. Mr. Sage served in the Marine Corps until his retirement in 1981. His tours of duty included Marine Corps Headquarters; the Pentagon; Marine Corps Schools, Quantico, Virginia; U.S. Army Artillery School, Fort Sill, Oklahoma; 1st Marine Division, Vietnam; 2d Marine Division, Guantanamo Bay, Cuba; 3rd Marine Division, Okinawa, Japan; the Navy ROTC unit at the College of the Holy Cross, Worcester, Massachusetts. Cover Photo: The San Jacinto Memorial near Houston, Texas, taken by the author. ii Preface Welcome to Academic American History: Early American History, 1607-1865. This textbook is the print version of course content published on the Academic American History web site, . The site contains links to information about recommended readings, historic sites and other sources of historic interest. This text is offered as a convenience for online students, for whom this is the only required text. The alternative to using this text involves downloading and printing identical material from the web site. To save you time, Lulu publishing prints the book to order for each buyer. The link for this and other texts by the author is . As the author I add a small royalty fee, which goes toward maintenance of the Academic American History web site and donations to Northern Virginia Community College. This volume is not a rigorously researched and constructed formal textbook. Rather, it is the product of my thirty plus years of teaching American history at several different colleges and universities, starting at the College of the Holy Cross in 1971. My lectures, and this text, have been influenced by America’s finest historians. The documentation in this book is necessarily slender, for to reassemble a bibliographic record of those years would be quite a challenge. Where materials from any work are quoted directly, the source is clearly indicated. They generally refer to authors whose ideas have struck me as particularly interesting. On the companion web site you will find useful links and recommended books that I have found especially helpful in understanding American history. Most of the graphics have come from open source locations on the Web such as Google images and various government sites such as the Library of Congress and the National Archives. I have also included my own photographs where appropriate. Much of what you will find here is the product of my own thinking and necessarily includes opinions with which others may disagree. It is essentially what my students heard during my years of teaching in the classroom. It also includes their thoughts and ideas, expressed in class discussions and in examinations and essays written over the years. My online students at Northern Virginia Community College continue to make valuable contributions. In addition to their formal and informal submissions, they have provided invaluable proofreading assistance and have made many suggestions, all of which have been given careful consideration. Many student ideas have been included in the text. It is a pleasure to acknowledge the editorial contribution of Katherine Kappus. Her careful editing and useful suggestions have improved this edition immeasurably. As a history teacher in Fairfax County, Virginia, Katy viewed the text not only from the point of view of a skilled editor, but also from the perspective of students who will be using this book. I am very grateful for her assistance. My students have also written hundreds of excellent papers from which I have gleaned additional knowledge about our country’s past. This work is dedicated to them. H.J. Sage Lorton, Virginia January 2010 iii Contents This text is arranged into four chronological sections according to the History 121 syllabus. The documents for each section are at the end of that section. Additional references and resources can be found on the course web site, . Course Description viii Part 1: Colonial American History, 1607-1763 Introduction to American History Prehistory: The Age of Discovery Prehistory Continued: Native Americans Introduction to Colonial American History Early European Explorations English Colonization of North America The American Colonies. Virginia: The London Company Bacon’s Rebellion The Protestant Reformation The New England Colonies Massachusetts Bay: A Puritan Commonwealth Additional New England Colonies Middle Colonies: New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland The Southern Colonies Slavery in the Colonial World Religion and Early American History The Enlightenment and America Women in Colonial America The American Colonies and the British Empire British Mercantilism The Glorious Revolution of 1688 Colonial Wars and Wars for Empire 1 5 7 12 13 14 22 25 26 29 31 35 37 40 41 43 46 48 50 51 55 56 Documents of Colonial American History John Smith on the Virginia Colony Letter from an Indentured Servant John Winthrop “Modell of Christian Charity” William Bradford’s History of Plymouth Plantation The Mayflower Compact The Fundamental Orders of Connecticut, 1639 Mary Jemison’s “Captivity” Story Gottlieb Mittelberger’s Journey to Pennsylvania Jonathan Edwards: Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God Three Poems of Anne Bradstreet Maryland Toleration Act A Letter from New England The Middle Passage from Africa Virginia Slave Statues, 1660-1669 iv 59 62 64 68 72 73 76 79 81 83 85 87 88 90 Part 2: Era of the American Revolution, 1763-1800 Introduction Background A Century of Imperial War: The Second Hundred Years War The French and Indian War Summary of Conditions in 1763 The Stamp Act Crisis, 1765 The “Boston Massacre” The Boston Tea Party and Coercive Acts The First Continental Congress The Revolution Begins, 1775 The Second Continental Congress Early Fighting: The War in the North Washington as a Military Commander The Move for Independence The Saratoga Campaign, 1777 The Battle of Monmouth, 1778 The War in the West and South The Final Showdown at Yorktown, 1781 The Treaty of Paris America under the Articles of Confederation: 1783–1789 The Northwest Ordinance The Constitutional Convention of 1787 Ratification of the Constitution The New Republic: The United States, 1789–1800 George Washington as President Hamilton and Financial Reform America and the French Revolution The Rise of Political Parties Foreign Affairs under Washington The Adams Administration The Election of 1800 92 93 95 98 100 102 104 105 105 107 109 110 111 113 114 118 118 118 120 124 130 131 135 138 142 143 144 145 148 151 153 Documents of the American Revolution Era James Otis: Against Writs of Assistance Resolutions of the Stamp Act Congress, 1765 The Boston Port Act, March 31, 1774 Resolves of the Continental Congress, October 14, 1774 Patrick Henry, “Liberty or Death” COMMON SENSE—Thomas Paine, 1776 The Virginia Bill of Rights, George Mason Blacks Petition Against Taxation Without Representation, 1780 A Bill For Establishing Religious Freedom In Virginia From James Madison’s notes on the Constitutional Convention George Mason’s Speech of August 22, 1787, on Slavery Concluding Remarks by Benjamin Franklin, George Washington, etc. Patrick Henry's Opening Speech in the Virginia Ratifying Convention The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions v 155 156 158 159 161 164 168 170 171 172 173 175 177 Part 3: Jeffersonian and Jacksonian Democracy The Age of Jeffersonian Democracy The Louisiana Purchase Jefferson’ Second Term America in the Age of Napoleon James Madison as President The War of 1812 The Treaty of Ghent The James Monroe Administration Regional Issues, 1815 to 1860 The Monroe Doctrine The Second Generation of Political Leaders The Marshall Court and U.S. Business The Missouri Compromise The 1824 Election & John Quincy Adams as President American Economic Growth 1820-1860 The Age of Jacksonian Democracy The Election of 1828 Jackson and the Bank The Nullification Crisis of 1832 The Cherokee Removal Martin Van Buren as President Tocqueville's America 180 185 189 190 194 197 200 202 204 209 210 212 216 218 219 226 230 235 236 238 240 241 Documents of American History 1800-1840 Thomas Jefferson’s First Inaugural Address Jefferson’s Embargo, 1807 James Madison’s War Message to Congress, 1812 The Monroe Doctrine John Marshall’s Greatest Decisions South Carolina’s Protest Against the Tariff of 1828 South Carolina Ordinance of Nullification Andrew Jackson’s Proclamation to South Carolina Daniel Webster’s Union Address Andrew Jackson's Bank Veto Excerpts from Tocqueville’s Democracy in America 243 246 247 249 251 258 259 260 263 266 268 Part 4: Expansion and War: The United States 1840-1865 Introduction The John Tyler Administration The Webster-Ashburton Treaty Texas and the Mexican War Manifest Destiny and Mexico The Mexican-American War The Oregon Boundary Dispute The Election of 1848 Social and Cultural Issues in the Antebellum Period The Age of Reform The Women’s Movement: Seneca Falls The Ante-Bellum South: Life on the Plantation Approach to Civil War, America in the 1850s vi 274 276 280 281 284 288 292 293 296 297 300 304 312 The Compromise of 1850 The Rise of Stephen Douglas The Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 House Dividing, 1857-1860: The Rise of Abraham Lincoln The Dred Scott Decision The Lincoln-Douglas Debates John Brown’s Raid The Election of 1860 and the Secession Crisis The Civil War, 1861-1865 1861: Rebellion in the South The Blue and the Gray First Battle of Bull Run The Trent Affair Shiloh The Ironclads Monitor and Virginia (Merrimack) McClellan’s Peninsular Campaign Antietam: The First Turning Point Emancipation Fredericksburg Chancellorsville Gettysburg: The Second Turning Point Vicksburg: The Decisive Turning Point The New York City Draft Riots Chickamauga and Chattanooga Sherman’s Campaigns in Georgia and South Carolina President Lincoln Assassinated Women in the Civil War & Other Issues Additional Reading on the Civil War 313 320 323 326 327 328 330 331 335 337 339 342 343 345 346 347 349 350 352 354 355 358 360 361 362 365 366 370 Documents 1840-1865 Texas Declaration of Independence President Polk’s war Message William Lloyd Garrison Views of Slavery 1850 Compromise Debates Dred Scott v. Sandford John Brown’s Final Speech 1860 Republican Platform Secession Resolutions Abraham Lincoln’s First Inaugural Address Confederate States of America Constitution Vice President Stephens’ “Cornerstone” Speech Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation Emancipation Proclamation Abraham Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Address General Sherman’s Letter to Atlanta Letter of Sullivan Ballou to his Wife vii 373 377 379 380 383 393 394 395 397 400 403 405 407 409 411 413 415 History 121: U.S. History I Course Description & Objectives History 121 is taught through the NVCC Distance Learning Center (Extended Learning Institute.) All materials for this course, including the contents of this text, can be accessed from the History 121 Course Home Page. This is a fully online course, so you will need regular access to a computer with an Internet connection. You will not have to attend any class meetings. You will have to take two proctored exams at any NVCC campus testing center. Proctoring at other locations can be arranged. (See the ELI web site for details.) You will also use the Blackboard component of the course for online discussions, quizzes and exams. You will be enrolled automatically in Blackboard when the course officially begins. The Course is divided into four chronological sections as follows: • Part 1 (1607-1763) covers exploration and colonization and examines the lives of colonists and how they interacted with the new landscape of America and with the British Empire. It continues through the French and Indian War to the beginning of the period of the American Revolution. • Part 2 (1763-1800) begins with an exploration of the background events of the American Revolution, the conduct of the war independence, and the granting of freedom to the new nation in 1783. It then proceeds to the story of the writing of the United States Constitution and the development of the new nation under Presidents Washington and Adams. It ends with the election of 1800. • Part 3 (1800-1840) covers the events of the Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, James Monroe and John Quincy Adams administrations and concludes with a discussion of Jacksonian America under Presidents Andrew Jackson and Martin van Buren. It includes the War of 1812 and explores a time of economic progress as well as democratic growth and reform. • Part 4 (1840-1865) begins with a period identified with Manifest Destiny and expansion across the continent to the Pacific coast. It includes the Texas fight for independence, the MexicanAmerican War and the opening of California. The section next proceeds through the turmoil of the 1850s as the Southern states move toward secession. It concludes with the conduct and results of the Civil War. Each section requires one quiz or exam and one written project, general instructions for which are included below. In addition students are required to make at least one site visit to an actual historic location or museum during the course, which will be the subject for one or more essays. Course Objectives: • • • • • Understand the character of the men and women who settled America and created a new nation; Appreciate the causes, effects and meaning of the American Revolution; Examine and understand the United States Constitution; Study the forces that both unified and divided the young Republic; Comprehend the causes, conduct and legacy of the American Civil War. Although we will examine the experiences of all segments of American society from colonial times through 1865, we will emphasize the major political events and figures. We will spend extra time on the American Revolutionary War and Civil War periods and will study the United States Constitution in considerable detail. At the end of the course students should have a deeper understanding of America and its people, a fuller appreciation of how this nation has been shaped by its past, and realistic expectations for America 's future. viii INTRODUCTION TO AMERICAN HISTORY “I have but one lamp by which my feet are guided, and that is the lamp of experience.” —Patrick Henry, 1775 “If you don't know history, you don't know anything; you're a leaf that doesn't know it's part of a tree.” —Michael Crichton in Timeline “A nation that forgets its past can function no better than an individual with amnesia. —David McCullough “History is our collective memory. If we are deprived of our memory we are in danger of becoming a large, dangerous idiot, thrashing blindly about, with only the dimmest understanding of the ideals and principles that formed us as a people, and that we have constantly to reinterpret and affirm if we are to preserve a sense of our own identity.” —Page Smith, from A People’s History of the United States Why Study History? Henry Ford once said, “History is more or less bunk.” To an industrialist who revolutionized the automobile industry by discarding old methods and creating new ones, the past may have seemed irrelevant. But it is clear that Henry Ford understood thoroughly what had occurred in industrial America before his time when he developed the assembly line and produced an automobile that most working Americans could afford. Whether he was aware of it or not, Henry Ford used his understanding of the past to create a better future. (In fact, what Henry Ford really meant was that history as being taught in the early 1900s was bunk.) Ford’s opinion aside, history is about understanding. It would be easy to say that “in these critical times” we need to know more about our history as a nation. But even a cursory study of America’s past reveals that relatively few periods in our history have not found us in the midst of one crisis or another—economic, constitutional, political, or military. We have often used the calm times to prepare for the inevitable storms, and in those calm times we ought to try to predict when the next storm will arise, or at least consider how we might cope with it. Because the best predictor of the future is the record of the past, we can learn much of value even when the need for such learning is not immediately apparent. Once the inevitable crisis is upon us, it may be difficult to reflect soberly on what we can learn from the past. As philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel said, “Amid the pressure of great events, a general principle gives no help.” A modern version of that dictum, often used in a military context, goes something like this: “It’s hard to remember that your mission is to drain the swamp when you’re up to your butt in alligators.” In any case, without looking backward, we may find the road ahead quite murky. No matter how much American history keeps presenting us with trying new situations, we discover from looking backward even to colonial times that we have met comparable chal- 1 lenges before. Conditions change, technology provides new resources, populations grow and shift, and new demographics alter the face of America. Yet no matter how much we change as a nation, we are still influenced by our past. The Puritans, the early settlers, founding fathers, pioneer men and women, Blacks, Native Americans, Chinese laborers, Hispanics, Portuguese, eastern Europeans, Jews, Muslims, Vietnamese—all kinds of Americans from our recent and distant past—still speak to us in clear voices about their contributions to the character of this great nation and the ways in which we have tried to resolve differences among ourselves and with the rest of the world. Everything we are and hope to be as Americans is rooted in our past. Our religious, political, social and economic development proceeded according to a pattern—whether random or cyclical—and those patte...
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