164-181.doc - FABRICATION AND MODIFICATION OF METALLIC...

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FABRICATION AND MODIFICATION OF METALLIC NANOPOWDERS BY ELECTRICAL DISCHARGE IN LIQUIDS N.V. Tarasenko 1 , A.A. Nevar 1 , N.A. Savastenko 2 , E.I. Mosunov 3 , N. Z. Lyakhov 4 , T.F.Grigoreva 4 1 Institute of Physics, NAS B, Minsk, Belarus 2 Leibniz-Institute for Plasma Science and Technology, Greifswald, Germany 3 The Institute of Machine Mechanics and Reliability NAS B, Minsk, Belarus 4 Institute of Solid State Chemistry and Mechanochemistry, SB RAS, 18 Kutateladze, Str , Novosibirsk, 630128, Russia, [email protected] Electrical-discharge technique was developed for preparation of metallic and metal-containing nanoparticles as well as for modification of metal micropowders in liquids. The morphology and composition of the nanopowders formed under various discharge conditions were investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. The optimal conditions for the production of titanium carbide and copper nanoparticles embedded in carbon layers were found. Introduction A synthesis of metallic and metal-containing nanopowders is of a great interest due to their potential applications as super hard materials [ 1 ], environmentally friendly fuel cells with highly effective catalysts [ 2 , 3 ], and so on. Transition metal carbides have been widely studied as electrocatalysts, because of their electrochemical properties and electrical conductivities. Nanosized carbon particles are suitable support materials for certain types of catalysts. Of particular interest for future catalytic applications are carbon-based materials with embeded metal nanoparticles [ 4 ]. As long as carbon nanoparticles are relatively inert supports many studies have been conducted in order to find which pre- treatment procedures are needed to achieve optimal interaction between the support and metal species [ 5 ]. For any application of nanoparticles to be commercially viable low-cost production methods have to be developed. A low-temperature and non-vacuum synthesis of nanoparticles via discharge in liquid (submerged discharge) provides a versatile choice for economical preparation of various nanostructures in a controllable way. An arc 164
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discharge in liquid nitrogen has firstly been reported as a cost-effective technique for the production of carbon nanotubes in 2000 by Ishigamy et al. [ 6 ]. Since that time, many efforts have been devoted to develop this method. Sano et al. proposed to submerge electrodes in water instead of liquid nitrogen [ 7 , 8 ]. They reported synthesis of carbon onions [Error: Reference source not found,Error: Reference source not found] and single-walled carbon nanohorns (SWNHs) [ 9 ]. In latter case, carbon nanoparticles were produced via discharge in water method with the support of gas injection. Parkansky et. al reported nanoparticles synthesis via a pulsed arc submerged in ethanol. Ni, W, steel and graphite electrodes were used [ 10 , 11 ]. The particles composition varied from carbon to pure metal including various intermediate combinations of these materials. Bera et al. employed an arc-discharge in a palladium
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