Week 4: Advanced Pathophysiology © 2017 South University
Page 2 of 2 NSG 6006 Pre-Specialty Evaluation ©2017 South University 2 Advanced Pathophysiology Week 4 Lecture Summaries Cell Biology /Cellular response/Cell environment Cell Biology/Adaptation Cells become specialized through the process of differentiation or maturation. The eight specialized cellular functions are movement, conductivity, metabolic absorption, secretion, excretion, respiration, reproduction, and communication. The eukaryotic cell consists of three general components: plasma membrane, cytoplasm, and intracellular organelles. The nucleus is the largest membrane-bound organelle and is usually found in the cell's center. Vaults are cytoplasmic organelles. They are carrying messengers of ribonucleic acid (mRNA) from the nucleus to the ribosomal sites of protein synthesis. The plasma membrane encloses the cell and, by controlling the movement of substances across it, exerts a powerful influence on metabolic pathways. Atrophy is a decrease in cellular size. Hypertrophy is an increase in the size of cells by increased work demands or hormonal stimulation. Hyperplasia is an increase in the number of cells caused by an increased rate of cellular division. Dysplasia, or atypical hyperplasia, is an abnormal change in the size, shape, and organization of mature tissue cells. Metaplasia is the reversible replacement of one mature cell type by another less mature celltype. Cellular Environment Body fluids are distributed among functional compartments and are classified as intracellular fluid (ICF) or extracellular fluid (ECF). The sum of all fluids is the total body water (TBW), which varies with age and the amount of body fat. Water moves between the plasma and interstitial fluid by osmosis and hydrostatic pressure. Edema is a problem of fluid distribution that results in the accumulation of fluid in the interstitial spaces.(Please refer to figure 3-2 in your textbook, which shows the mechanisms of edema formation.)
Page 3 of 2 NSG 6006 Pre-Specialty Evaluation ©2017 South University 3 Advanced Pathophysiology Week 4 Immunologic/Infectious Two types of human defense mechanisms exist: (1) innate resistance or immunity conferred by natural barriers, and (2) the inflammatory response and the adaptive (acquired) immune system. First, let’s look at the mechanisms related to the inflammatory response. Vascular response in acute inflammation includes vasodilation, increased capillary permeability, and adherence of white blood cells to inner vessel walls and their migration through the vessel walls. Three plasma protein systems provide a biochemical barrier against invading pathogens in the circulation. Types of cells involved in the inflammatory process, including mast cells, granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils), monocytes or macrophages, natural killer (NK) cells, lymphocytes, and cellular fragments (platelets). The inflammatory response is initiated upon tissue injury or pathogen-associated molecular patterns that are recognized by pattern recognition receptors on cells of the innate immune system. Local manifestations of inflammation are the
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- South University, Pre-Specialty Evaluation