Lecture8.pptx - Operating System Security Computer Security...

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edithcowancollege.edu.au navitas.com Operating System Security Computer Security
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edithcowancollege.edu.au navitas.com What is an Operating System? Provides the interface between the user and the computer hardware Manages how applications access resources Hard disks CPU RAM Input devices Output devices Network interfaces
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edithcowancollege.edu.au navitas.com OS Security Concepts Identification, Authentication, Authorisation Separation and protection of objects Auditing Permissions and File System Security
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edithcowancollege.edu.au navitas.com Separation of Objects An OS needs to stop objects from interfering with other objects In particular it needs to prevent one process from interfering with other processes Memory management is important Many memory management techniques have been used by operating systems
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edithcowancollege.edu.au navitas.com Identification and Authentication Passwords still heavily relied upon as a means of authentication Smartcards, tokens making some progress Consumer oriented biometric devices are becoming prominent for mobile computing devices
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edithcowancollege.edu.au navitas.com Authorisation An operating system controls accesses to object within the system Objects might include Files Network shares External drives and peripherals Resources (processor, memory etc) Different Operating Systems have different capabilities in controlling access to these resources
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edithcowancollege.edu.au navitas.com Windows Security Architecture Local Security Authority (LSA) Security Reference Monitor (SRM) Security Accounts Manager (SAM) WinLogon and NetLogon Access Control Lists (ACL) User Account Controls (UAC) Security Identifier (SID)
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edithcowancollege.edu.au navitas.com Local Security Authority (LSA) A process responsible for enforcing a local security policy Issues security tokens to accounts Key component of the logon process
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edithcowancollege.edu.au navitas.com Security Reference Monitor Determines if a process has the appropriate rights to perform an action
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edithcowancollege.edu.au navitas.com Security Accounts Manager A database that stores user accounts and relevant security information about local users and groups Stores users’ passwords in a hashed format
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edithcowancollege.edu.au navitas.com Winlogon and NetLogon Winlogon.exe handles local logons NetLogon handles logons across the network Makes use of a Security Attention Sequences (SAS) The SAS is designed to make login spoofing difficult
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edithcowancollege.edu.au navitas.com Access Control Assumptions… The system knows who the ‘user’ is…because we authenticated via a username and password Access (to resource) requests must go through a gatekeeper (reference monitor) The system must prevent the gatekeeper from being bypassed Resource User process Reference monitor access request policy ?
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