8 (5).ppt - Molecular Genetics Beneficial gives an organism a selective advantage enhances its reproductive success Harmful reduces an organism's

8 (5).ppt - Molecular Genetics Beneficial gives an organism...

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Molecular Genetics
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Beneficial gives an organism a selective advantage enhances it’s reproductive success Harmful reduces an organism's fitness it tends to be selected against reduces an organisms reproductive success occur at low rates
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Neutral there is neither a benefit or cost to the individual It is not acted on by natural selection It does not enhance or hinder the organism’s reproductive success
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Change the bases or it can change the chromosome It is a source of new genetic variation ….. and may be acted on by natural selection
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They can occur in both somatic cells & germline cells
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If they occur in germline cells they are passed on to the next generation
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There are 2 categories of mutations: A. Gene B. Chromosome
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Is a change in the bases
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2 Main types of Gene mutations: 1. Point 2. Insertions & Deletions
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Is the replacement of one nucleotide by another they don’t always change the amino acid it is the most common type of copying error E.g. Silent, Nonsense, missense
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There is a change in one base but it still codes for the same amino acid E.g. ACA …changed to ACU both code for threonine
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A change in 1 base changes the amino acid produced E.g. sickle cell anemia
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