8 (8).ppt - Molecular Genetics Is the manipulation of organisms or their components to make useful products It is now applied in areas such as

8 (8).ppt - Molecular Genetics Is the manipulation of...

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Molecular Genetics
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Is the manipulation of organisms or their components to make useful products. It is now applied in areas such as agriculture, criminal law, & research.
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Is making an identical copy of a gene It involves making recombinant DNA It enables scientists to: Create multiple identical copies of a gene Create gene libraries Determine gene sequence & restriction sites
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Use clones for research & use the proteins created to solve health problems
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1. Splice (cut) the gene from an organism 2. Insert the gene into a bacteria’s plasmid (vector) DNA; creating recombinant DNA
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Plasmids are Plasmids are small, circular, small, circular, double-stranded double-stranded DNA molecules DNA molecules that are found that are found inside a bacteria’s inside a bacteria’s cytoplasm. They cytoplasm. They are separate from are separate from the bacteria’s large, the bacteria’s large, circular circular chromosome chromosome . .
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3. Introduce the recombinant DNA into a bacteria (host cell) 4. Let the recombinant DNA replicate in the host cell (multiple clones)
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5. Let the bacteria make the protein encoded by the foreign gene.
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Some plasmids are engineered to have these Is a region in plasmid that contains an unique recognition site that can be used by many restriction enzymes
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Come from bacteria There natural function is to protect bacteria against viruses Bacteria add methyl groups to its own DNA so that the restriction enzyme cannot cut its DNA Don’t discriminate & will cut any DNA EcoRI
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Note: methylation inactivates genes in eukaryotic cells
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They are named according to the bacteria they come from E.g. BamHI 1 st letter is the genus …B= Bacillus 2 nd and 3 rd letter the species ……am= amyloiquefaciens 4 th letter is the strain ……H numbers indicate the order of discovery 1 = the 1 st
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