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Unformatted text preview: Developments in Petroleum Science, 18 B PRODUCTION AND TRANSPORT OF OIL AND GAS Second completely revised edition PART B Gathering and transportation DF.VEL,OPMENTS IN PETROLEUM SCIENCE Advisory Editor: G . V. Chilingarian 1. i\ G E N E C O L L I N S G F O C H E M I S T R Y OF O I L F I E L D W A T E R S 2 W . H. F E R T L A B N O R M A L F O R M A T I O N OF P R E S S U R E S 3 A P. SZILAS P R O D U C T I O N A N D T R A N S P O R T OF OIL A N D G A S 4 C E. B. C O N Y B E A R E G E O M O R P H O L O G Y OF O I L A N D G A S F I E L D S IN S A N D S T O N E B O D I E S 5 T I.-. YEN and G. V. C H I L I N G A R I A N (Editors) 011- S H A L E 6 D. W. P E A C E M A N FLINDAMENTALS O F N U M E R I C A L RESERVOIR S I M U L A T I O N 7 G . V. C H l L l N G A R l A N a n d T. F. Y E N (Editors) BITLMENS. ASPHALTS A N D TAR SANDS 8 L 1'. D A K E F1:WDAMENTALS OF RESERVOIR E N G I N E E R I N G 9 K MAGARA COVPACTION A N D FLUID MIGRATION 10 M T. SlLVlA a n d E. A. R O B I N S O N D E C O N V O L U T I O N OF G E O P H Y S I C A L T I M E S E R I E S IN T H E EXPLORATION F O R O I L A N D NATURAL G A S I I < I . V. < ' H I L l N G I \ R I A N and P. VORABIJTR DRILLING A N D DRILLING FLUIDS 12 T VAN G O L F - R A C H T FRACTURED HYDROCARBON-RESERVOIR E N G I N E E R I N G I 3 I J O H N FAYERS (Editor) ENtLANCED O I L RECOVERY 14 C ; . M O Z E S (Editor) PAR A FFI N P R O D U C T S 15 0. SERRA F V N D A M E N T A L S OF W E L L - L O G I N T E R P R E T A T I O N I . Thf: acquisition of logging data 16 R E. C H A P M A N PETROLEUM GEOLOGY 17 1.. C. D O N A L D S O N . G. V. C H I L I N G A R I A N a n d T. F. Y E N E N H A N C E D OIL RECOVERY I . F undamentals a n d Analyses 18 A . P. SZILAS P R O D U C T I O N A N D T R A N S P O R T OF O I L A N D G A S Second completely revised edition A. I.'low mechanics a n d production 9. Gathering a n d transportation Developments in Petroleum Science, 18 B PRODUCTION AND TRANSPORT OF OIL AND GAS Second completely revised edition PART B Gathering and transportation by A. P. SZILAS ELSEVIER Amsterdam-Oxford-New York-Tokyo 1986 Joint edition published by Elsevier Science Puhlishers, Amsterdam, The Netherlands and Ak;tdkniai Kiado, the Publishing House of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary Fir\t English edition 1975 Translated by B Balkay Second revised and enlarged edition 1985 and I986 Translated by B. Balkay and A. Kiss Thc distribution of this book is being handled by the following puhlishers for the CJ.S.A. and Canada Elsevier Science Publishing Co., Inc. 52 Vanderbilt Avenue, New York, New York 10017, U S A . for the East European Countries, Korean People’s Republic, Cuba, People’s Republic of Vietnam and Mongolia Kultura Hungarian Foreign Trading Co., P.0.Box 149, H-1389 Budapest, Hungary for .ill remaining areas Elsevier Science Publishers Sara Hurgerhartstraat 25, P . 0 Box 21 I , lo00 AE Amsterdam, The Netherlands Library of Congress Cataloging Data S;ril;ts. A. P d . Production and transport of oil and gas (Ikvelopments in petroleum science; IXB-) Tr;inslation of Kiiolaj is fiildgiztermelis. I I’etroleum engineering. 2. Petroleum-Pipe lines 3 . <;as, Natural -Pipe lines. I. Title. 11. Series. TNX70.S9413 I984 622’.338 84-13527 ISBN 0-444-99565-X (V. 2) ISBN 0-44499564- I (Series) ( Akddemidi Kiddo, Buddpest 1986 Printed in Hungdry Contents List of symbols and units for frequently used physical quantities Chapter 6. Gathering and separation of oil and gas 6. I . Line pipes 6.1.1. Steel pipes 6. I .2. Plastic pipes, plastic-lined steel pipes 6.1.3. Wall thickness of pipes 6.2. Valves, pressure regulators 6.2.1. Valves (a) Gate valves (b) Plug and ball valves (c) Globe valves 6.2.2. Pressure regulators 6.3. Internal maintenance of pipelines 6.4. Separation o f oil and gas 6.4.1. Equilibrium calculations 6.4.2. Factors affecting recovery in the separator (a) Separator pressure (b) Separator temperature (c) Composition of the wellstream (d) Stage separation 6.4.3. Basic separator types (a) Vertical separators (b) Horizontal separators (c) Spherical separators 6.4.4. Separator selection (a) Choice of the separator type (b) Separator sizing 6.4.5. Special separators (a) Cyclone separators (b) Three-phase (oil-water -gas) separators (c) Automatic metering separators 6.4.6. Low-temperature separation 6.5. On-lease oil storage 6 C'ONTFIUTS 6.5. I . Storage losses 6.5.2. Oil storage tanks 6.6. Fluid tolume measurement 6.6.1. Measurement of crude volume in tanks 6.6.2. Dump meter 6.6.3. Fluid measurement by orifice meters 6.6.4. Critical flow power 6.6.5. Positive-displacement meters 6.6.6. Turbine type flow meters 6.6.7. Other measurements 6.7. Oil and gas gathering and separation systcms 6.7. I . Viewpoints for designing gathering systems with well-testing centres 6.7.2. Hand-operated well-testing centres 6.7.3. The automated system (a) Automated well centres ( b ) Automatic custody transfer 6.7.4. Design of field integrated oil prducLion b y \ l e m b (FIOPSI (a) The design and location of optimum well producing syskms (b) Localion of the units gathering, treating and transporting lluici streams from wells (c) The production tetrahedron Chapter 7. Pipeline transportation of oil 7.1. Pressure waves. waterhammer 7.1. I . The reasons of the waterhammer phenomenon and its mathematical representation 7.1.2. Pressure wave in the transport system 7. I .3. Presbure waves 111 oil pipelines 7.2. Slug transportation 7.2.1. Mixing at the boundary of two slugs 7.2.2. Scheduling of batch transport 7.2.3. Detection of slug's borders 7.3. Leaks and ruptures in pipelines 7.3. I. The detection of larger leaks 7.3.2. The detection of small leaks 7.4. Isothermal oil transport 7.4.1. Oil transportation with or without applying tanks 7.4.2. Design of fundamental transport operations (a) Pressure traverse and maximum capacity of pipelines (b) Increasing the capacity of pipelines by looping (c) Location of booster stations (d) Optimum diameter and trace of the pipeline (A)The optimum pipe diameter (B)The optimum trace of pipelines (e) Selection of centrifugal pumps 7.5. lsothermal oil transport system 7.6. Non-isothermal oil transport 9I 95 i07 103 I Oh 107 I I7 II? I Ih I lr; 171 I?? 124 12x 131 170 140 141 143 115 117 147 147 153 I 56 Ihi 163 167 16') 170 172 175 177 177 179 179 1 X4 1 xx 190 IYI 195 19x 207 215 7 CONTENTS 7.6.1. 7.6.2. 7.6.3. 7.6.4. Thermal properties of soils Temperature of oil in steady-state flow, in buried pipelines The heat-transfer coeflicient Calculating the head loss for the steady-stale flow (a) The oil is Newtonian (A)Chernikin's theory ( B ) Ford's theory (with modification) (bj The oil is thixotropic-pseudoplastic 7.6.5. Temperature of oil in transient flow, in buried pipelines 7.6.6. Startup pressure and its reduction (a) The oil is Newtonian (bj The crude is thixotropic-pseudoplastic 7.6.7. Pipelines transporting hot oil 7.7. Methods of improving flow characteristics 7.7. I . Heat treatment 7.7.2. Solvent addition 7.7.3. Chemical treatment 7.7.4. Oil transport in a water bed Chapter 8. Pipeline transportation of natural gas 8.1. Physical and physico-chemical properties of natural gas X.1. I . Equation ol state, compressibility. density, gravity X. 1.2. Viscosity 8.1.3. Specific heat, molar heat. adiabatic gas exponent. Joule Thornso. effect 8.1.4. Hydrocarbon hydrates X.2. Temperature of flowing gases 8.3. Steady-state flow in pipeline systems 8.3.1. Fundamental flow equations X.3.2. Loopless systems 8.3.3. Looped systems 8.4. Transient flow in pipeline systems 8.4.1. Relationships for one pipe Row 8.4.2. Flow in pipeline systems 8.5. Numerical simulation of the flow in pipeline system by computer 8.5. I . Principle o f computation 8.5.2. Review of system-modelling programs (a) General programs suitable also for the modelling of gas transmissiot systems (b) Programs modelling steady states (c) Programs modelling steady and transient states (d) Programs solvable by simulation 8.6. Pipeline transportation of natural gas; economy 215 220 223 232 232 23' 235 ' -. 79 240 247 247 249 255 26 I 26 I 266 27 I 275 279 2x I 2x2 'XX 2x9 293 207 3(X) 301 303 306 315 316 3'1 i2 j 375 32X 329 329 330 33 I 335 References 34 I Subject index 350 This Page Intentionally Left Blank List of symbols and units for frequently used physical quantities L' d r .I/ h h h k k k temperature distribution or diffusivity factor specific heat per unit mass per mole mass compressibility diameter figure of merit of pipe acceleration of gravity head loss of flow height, elevation difference specific enthalpy equivalent absolute roughness specific cost of transportation heat transfer factor per unit length of pipe heat transfer factor per unit surface reflectivity factor transmissivity factor length, distance from the origin number of moles of system exponent of exponential law pressure pseudoreduced pressure reduced pressure volumetric flow rate mass flow rate radius wall thickness of pipe mixed slug length valve travel time, duration, period m2/s JAkg K i J/(kmole K ) mZ/N m ._ m2;s m m J/kg m Ft/(kg km) m - m 3/s kgls m m m m S 10 0 1) M' xi Yl z Z zi A A D E ii' H K Kl L M M N P Q R R S S T V V W w a a1 a2 aT UP c Y I IS7 Ot S Y M H O I S flow velocity specific construction cost acoustic propagation velocity mole fraction of ith component of liquid mole fraction of ith component of gas compressibility factor geodetic head mole fraction of ith component of liquid-gas mixture cross-sectional area depreciation cost rate of shear modulus of elasticity force, weight head capacity of p u m p cost equilibrium ratio of ith component in liquid-gas system length torque molar mass dimensionless number power heat universal molar gas constant volumetric ratio sign (flow direction indicator) mass fraction temperature pseudoreduced temperature reduced temperature volume specific volume work, energy specific energy content flow constant internal convection factor external heat-transfer factor temperature coefficient of oil density pressure coefficient of oil density volumetric rate specific weight m m2 Forint/year 1 /s N/m2 N m Forint/yea r ni Nm k g/ k m olc - W J J/(kmole K ) - m3 J/N I IST Of. S Y M R O I S efficiency ratio of specific heats melting heat of paraffin pipe friction factor thermal conductivity factor dynamic viscosity kinematic viscosity flow resistance factor (dimensionless pressure gradient) density stress yield strength (of solid) tensile strength shear stress heat flow specific heat flow - k/m3 N/mZ N/m2 N/mz N/m W W/m FREQUENTLY lJSED SUBSCRIPTS Subscript a1 c c ch e f f f ft fr Y 1 in in m mol max min n 0 0 opt Meaning allowable clay critical choke effective pipe axis fluid friction friction-laminar friction-turbulen t gas inner insulation inflow mass molar maximum minimum normal, standard outer oil optimum Example allowable strength clay fraction of soil kg/kg critical pressure diameter of choke effective flow rate temperature in pipe axis fluid flow rate friction pressure loss friction prcssure loss at laminar flow friction pressure loss at turbulent flow molar mass of gas inner pipe diameter insulation temperature pressure raise at inflow mass flow rate of gas molar volume maximum pressure minimum pressure standard tempera t ure outer diameter, OD density of oil optimum pipe diameter 12 P P r re S sd SW St tr w Fo Gr L Nu Pr Re V A LIST Ok SYMBOLS period pressure relative reflected soil dry soil wet soil steel throughflow water Fourier Grashof liquid Nussel t Prandtl Reynolds vapor, volatile difference mean, average time length of a period dynamic viscosity at p pressure relative density reflected pressure raise thermal conductivity of soil thermal conductivity of dry soil thermal conductivity of wet soil specific heat of steel pressure raise at throughflow dynamic viscosity of water Fourier number Grashof number mole fraction in liquid phase Nusselt number Prandtl number Reynolds number mole fraction in vapor (gas) phase pressure difference average pressure Remurks: a) list above does not contain - rarely used symbols. they are explained in the text. indices signed by letters or figures if they denote serial number. - symbols of constants. b) Indices are sometimes omitted for the sake of simplification if the denotation remains unambiguous. ~~ CHAPTER 6 GATHERING AND SEPARATION OF OIL AND GAS 6.1. Line pipes 6.1.1. Steel pipes Steel pipes used in transporting oil and gas are either hotrolled seamless pipes or spiral or axially welded pipes, respectively. Pipes manufactured according to API Standards are used mostly by the oil- and gas-industry all over the world. On the basis of API Spec. 5L-1978 Tuhlc 6.1 - l gives the main characteristics of thc plainend pipes of 1/8"- 1 1/2" nominal diameters. The main parameters of the pipes exceeding these sizes arc given in Tuhle 6.1-2. The table was constructed on the basis of API Spec. 5L- 1978, 5LX- 1978. 5 L S - 1978, and 5LU- 1972. For each O D of the pipes the following data are given: the smallest and largest mass per length of the pipes (Column 3); the wall thickness (Column 4): the corresponding smallest and largest I D S (Column 5); and, besides, Table 6.1 -2 shows that how many kinds of pipes of standard sizes manufactured according to the above specifications are available within the range of the given size limits (Columns 6-9). The tolerance of the OD depends both on the pipe-size and its mode of fabrication. The maximum admissible tolerance is 1 percent. The tolerance of the wall-thickness varies also depending on the pipe-size mode of fabrication. The maximum admissible tolerances range between +20 and - 12.5 percents. Pipe ends are bevelled to facilitate butt welding. Unless there is an agreement to the contrary the bevel angle is 30" (tolerance + 5" -Oo) as measured from a plane perpendicular to the pipe axis. The height of the unbevelled pipeface, perpendicular to the axis should be 1.59 mm with a tolerance of kO.79 mm. Some characteristic data of these pipe materials and their strength are listed in Table 6.1 -3. Threaded-end pipes for joining with couplings of 20 in (508.0 mm) or smaller nominal sizes are also made. These pipes are made however exclusively of steels of A - 25, A and B grades. During the past two decades experts did their best to produce weldable steels of the highest possible strength for the oil- and gas-industry. Figure 6.1 - 1shows, after Forst and Schuster (1975), in a simplified form, that how the strength of the new standard pipe-materials increased in the course of the years. On the left side of the ordinate axis the standard grade can be seen while on its right the yield strength can be read in MPa units. The quality improvement during Period I is mainly due to the application of the micro-alloys, in Period 11 it was facilitated by a new type of thermo-mechanical treatment of the pipe steel, while in the third phase it was made 14 6 GATHERIN<; A N D SEPARATION OF O I L A N D G A S Table 6. I Nominal SILC, in. 74 - I . Main parameters of API plain-end steel pipe line with O D from 10.3 -48.3 rnm (after API Spec. 51. - 1978) I Test pressure for grade Wall ID thickness (1,. \. m m mm bars I 4 2 1 3 5 II 1.73 2.41 68 5.5 48 SO 4x 59 48 59 2.24 3.02 9.2 7.7 48 59 48 59 48 59 2.3 1 12.5 10.7 48 59 48 59 48 3.20 2.77 3.73 7.47 15.8 13.8 6.4 48 48 59 6') 4x 59 69 21.0 I 8.9 4x 59 48 11.1 48 59 69 6Y 69 3.38 26-6 24-3 15.2 48 59 69 48 59 69 48 59 69 59 69 59 26.7 3.63 2.87 3.9 I 7.X2 .. 7 7.4 7.4 33.4 2.50 3.23 5.45 4-55 9.09 42.2 42-2 42.2 3-38 4.47 7.76 4.x5 9.70 35. I 32.5 22-8 X3 I24 90 131 90 I52 I58 96 4P.3 48.3 48-3 4.05 5.4 I 9.55 3.68 5.08 40.9 38-1 90 131 10.16 28.0 83 I24 I52 69 90 96 .. 7 3.56 I 5x 5Y 69 possible by the subsequent treatment of the pipe-steel before and after manufacturing the pipe. The increase in quality is of great economic importance. A pipeline of the same ID that can be operated on the same allowable working pressure is cheaper if it is constructed of pipes with smaller wall-thickness that are made of higherstrength steel. During a given period, for instance, while the unit-weight price of the pipe-steel, available in Hungary, ranged between 1 - 1.2, the relative value of the yield strength of these steels varied between 1 - 1.9. Since, according to Eq. 6.1 - 3, the allowable working pressure is directly proportional both to the wall-thickness (and that is why on the basis of G = d n s p to the mass per length) and to the yield strength, the application of a better quality pipe-material IS obviously more economical. The specific transportation costs of both oil and gas decrease if the throughput to be transported is greater and the fluid or gas at the given throughput is carried through optimum size pipeline of comparatively great diameter. Application of h I I5 ILINL P IP I S Table 6.1 - 2. Main parameters of A P I steel Iinc pipes iihovc 0 1 ) 60-3 niiii (after API Spec. 5L-1978. 5LX-1978. 51,s-1978 and 51.1:-1972) w211 ____ in. 1 mass. G hickncss. rnm kg/m mm nini 51 2 3 4 5 6 ,s 51.X 7 ~ 2 318 60 3 2 7,’x 73.0 3 112 4 4 112 8x9 101.6 114.3 5 9/16 141.3 6 518 168.3 8 518 10 3/4 219.1 273.0 12 314 323.8 14 355.6 16 406.4 I8 457-2 20 508.0 22 558.8 24 609.6 26 660.4 28 711.2 30 762.0 32 812.8 3.02 13-45 3.68 20.39 4.5 I 27.67 5.17 I 8.62 5.84 4 1.02 7.24 57.42 X.64 79. I 8 16.9I 107.87 26.29 128.37 34.42 165.29 4 I .30 194.90 47.29 266.20 53.26 333.07 68.92 407.39 75.88 4x9. I 7 94.45 557.53 102.40 397.70 110.36 429.5 I 118.31 57 1 6 8 126.26 61 1.45 2.1 1 1 I .07 2II 14.02 2.1 I 15.24 2.1 1 8.08 2.1 I 17.12 2.1 I 19-05 2.1 I 2 I .95 3.18 22.22 396 20.62 4.37 22.22 4.78 23.x3 4.78 28.58 4.78 31.75 5.56 34.92 5.56 38. I 0 6.35 39.67 6.35 25.40 6.35 25.40 6.35 31.75 6.35 3 1.75 S6. I 38.2 68.8 45.0 x4.7 5x-4 97.4 xs.4 I 10.I 80-1 I 37. I 105-2 164.I 124.4 212.7 114-7 265. I 23 1.8 315.1 279.4 346.0 307.9 396.8 349.2 447.6 393.7 496.9 438.2 547.7 482.6 596.9 530.3 647.7 609.6 698.5 660.4 749.3 698.5 800.1 749.3 -.-. I1 II I2 I? 12 12 12 II 17 16 51,5 51.11 x 9 .- _. 17 II 13 20 I0 IY 19 I6 16 16 I0 14 14 15 14 17 19 19 19 I6 19 20 19 20 22 22 22 21 23 23 23 22 24 24 24 24 26 26 26 24 26 26 26 15 17 17 17 14 17 17 17 18 21 21 17 IX 21 21 17 16 6 . GATHERING A N D SEPARATION OF OIL A N D G A S Table 6.1 OD Specific mass, G Wall Ihickness. ~ 2. cont ID ! Number of sires d, ~- ~. in. mm mm m ni 51x SLS 51u I 2 4 5 6 i n 9 6.35 31.75 6.35 3 1.75 7.92 31.75 7.92 3 1.75 8.74 31.75 8.74 31.75 8.74 3 1.75 8.74 31.75 9.53 31.75 9.53 31.75 9.53 31.75 9.53 3 I .75 11.91 31.75 12.70 3 I .75 12.70 3 1.75 14.27 31.75 850.9 800.1 901.7 850.9 949.4 901.7 1000.2 952.5 104Y.3 1003.3 18 21 21 17 in 21 21 17 19 19 19 IS 19 19 19 15 18 18 18 14 18 In in 14 18 in in 14 18 18 18 14 15 15 17 15 15 17 13 13 17 13 13 17 34 863-6 36 914.4 38 965.2 40 1016.0 42 1066.8 134.22 65 I .22 142.17 690.99 I ~7.05 730.76 I9699 7 70.5 3 227.95 8 10.30 44 I I 17.6 46 I 168.4 48 1219.2 52 1320.8 56 1422.4 60 1524.0 64 1625.6 68 1727.2 72 I n2x.n 76 1930.4 80 2032.0 238.90 850.07 249-85 nwn4 260.78 929.6 I 307.97 1009.15 331.83 1088.69 355.69 1168.23 379.55 1247.77 503.84 1327.3 I 568.71 1406.85 600.52 1486.39 710.19 1565.93 I100.1 1054.1 1 I 50.9 1 104.Y 1201.7 I 155.7 1301.8 1257.3 1402.4 I 358.9 I505~0 1460.5 1606.6 1562.1 1703.4 1663.7 1803.4 1765.3 1905.0 1866.9 2003.5 1968.5 14 13 13 12 spiral-welded steel-pipes is advantageous first of all for the construction of pipelines of big diameters. Table 6.1 - 2 shows that pipelines of 1727.2-2032.0 mm diameters are exclusively made by using this technology. In case of smaller diameters they are economical on the one hand because smaller wall-thickness is required than in case of the hot-drawn pipes, and on the other hand in case of the same geometrical parameters their allowable working pressure is higher than that of the axially welded pipes. 17 6 I . LINE PIPES Table 6.1 - 3. Strength and composition of API steel line pipes (after API Spec. 5L-1978. 5LX-1978, 5...
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