COMM370 Exam 2.docx - Comm 370 Exam 2 Schema Theory Comes...

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Comm 370 Exam 2 Schema Theory Comes to communication research by way of cognitive psychology Schemas : highly structured sets of categories or patterns; set of interrelated conceptual categories Schemas help us make sense of what we are seeing and put it into useful categories so we can remember it. They form and change as we interact with our world. Ex. Slideshow on related concepts: all the same theme but not in any particular order Scripts: a type of schema, but functions in a linear way like a story.. Ex. Short film, operates like a story Schemas and scripts are both Network models of memory Both are used to fill in information Both rely on “associative networks” Limited processing capacity means our brains work quickly to make the best guesses from limited information Heuristics: cognitive shortcuts in the brain Constructs that are activated together will be closely linked in memory Efficient but not always accurate Hostile Media Effect : the idea that individuals who hold strong preexisting attitudes on an issue perceive media coverage as biased against their side and in favor of the opposite POV A neutral observer sees no bias Defensive processing mechanism Different standards Selective categorization: you remember all information but categorize it by why its bias against your perspective Selective recall High involvement necessary -Three major types of effects: 1. Cognitive: do people know more after being exposed to media? 2. Affective: are people’s feelings influenced by media? 3.Behavioral: do people act differently after exposure to media?
1. Peripheral Route (default) a. Little scrutiny of the message’s arguments. b. easy , not a lot of energy c. Gut reactions d. Leads to short-term, stable opinions e. Less predictive behavior 2. Central route a. Lots of scrutiny of message arguments b. “Cognitive elaboration”: processing events as they’re coming in c. Very engaged with arguments and evidence, thinking hard about it d. Leads to longer-term, stable opinions e. More predictive behavior ^^Which path we take depends on our processing ability and our processing motivation Ability to think carefully about a message. Are we able to think about this? Motivation to think carefully about a message. Do we want to think about this? These factors come from: Within ourselves The situation/environment Aspects of the message PUSH media: push information toward audience members, who either take it or don’t PULL media: audience members pull from them the information they seek out of the media environment

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