Comm 370 Exam 2Schema Theory●Comes to communication research by way of cognitive psychologySchemas: highly structured sets of categories or patterns; set of interrelated conceptual categories●Schemas help us make sense of what we are seeing and put it into useful categories so we can remember it.●They form and change as we interact with our world.○Ex. Slideshow on related concepts: all the same theme but not in any particular orderScripts: a type of schema, but functions in a linear way like a story..●Ex. Short film, operates like a story●Schemas and scripts are both Network models of memory○Both are used to fill in information○Both rely on “associative networks”Limited processing capacity means our brains work quickly to make the best guesses from limited information●Heuristics: cognitive shortcuts in the brain○Constructs that are activated together will be closely linked in memory●Efficient but not always accurateHostile Media Effect: the idea that individuals who hold strong preexisting attitudes on an issueperceive media coverage as biased against their side and in favor of the opposite POV●A neutral observer sees no bias●Defensive processing mechanism●Different standards●Selective categorization: you remember all information but categorize it by why its bias against your perspective●Selective recall●High involvement necessary-Three major types of effects:1.
Cognitive: do people know more after being exposed to media?2.
Affective: are people’s feelings influenced by media?3.Behavioral: do people act differently after exposure to media?
1.Peripheral Route (default)a.Little scrutiny of the message’s arguments.b.easy , not a lot of energyc.Gut reactionsd.Leads to short-term, stable opinionse.Less predictive behavior2.Central routea.Lots of scrutiny of message argumentsb.“Cognitive elaboration”: processing events as they’re coming inc.Very engaged with arguments and evidence, thinking hard about itd.Leads to longer-term, stable opinionse.More predictive behavior●^^Which path we take depends on our processing abilityand our processing motivation○Abilityto think carefully about a message. Are we able to think about this?○Motivationto think carefully about a message. Do we want to think about this?●These factors come from:○Within ourselves○The situation/environment○Aspects of the message●PUSH media:push information toward audience members, who either take it or don’t●PULL media:audience members pull from them the information they seek out of the media environment○