Comm 370 Exam 1 Readings Study Guide.docx - Comm 370 Study...

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Comm 370 Study GuideChapter 1Grand theory: a theory that tries to explain all aspects of a given phenomenonTrying to explain the world around usUrges to focus on abstract, analytic theory buildingMass communication: when an organization employs a technology as a medium to communicate with a large audienceMediated communication: communication between a few or many people that employs atechnology as a mediumInterpersonal communication: communication between two or a few people, usually face to faceScience and human behavior:Physical scientists: the dreamers, the fixers, and the guardiansThey are the future.OptimisticStudy physical phenomena and how amazing they areSocial scientists: the naysayers, the Grinches of the worldTell us that television corrupts our morals, political campaigns render us to cynical to participate meaningfully in our democracyParents rely too heavily on TV to babysit their kidsStudy dynamics and processes in the human social worldCausal relationship: when a variable under specific conditions always produce the same effect in another variableEffects take place slowly, over long periods of timeThe scientific method is difficult to study the social world because:1.Most of the significant and interesting forms of human behavior are quite difficult to measure.a.Challenges of measurementb.How do you measure an attitude or behavior2.Human behavior is complex.a.Deterministic versus probabilistic relationshipsb.Outcomes have multiple causes that very person to person3.Humans have goals and are self-reflexive.a.Humans have free willb.We have goals and are self-reflexive4.The simple notion of causality is sometimes troubling when it is applied to ourselves.a.We are uncomfortable with the notion that our behaviors can be predicted (we LOVE our free will)b.Third person effects-Stand up comedians are more introverted
Third-person effect: the idea that “media affect others, but not me”Scientific methodEmpirical: requires we test and set up a scenarioVerifiable- requires a willingness to accept your not rightFalsifiable- set up a scenario to test that you were wrongThe Research Process is:an interplay of theory and observationAn interplay of inductive and deductive logical processesInductive: from the observations to the theoryObservation -> pattern -> tentative hypothesis -> theoryDeductive: from the theory to the observationTheory-> hypothesis -> test -> confirmationFocuses on causationCausal relationships between variablesSeeks testable propositionsWe have to be able to test our claimsMaintains tentative conclusionsAlways embodying the spirit of falsifiability“We never remove ourselves from doubt”We never definitely prove somethingInstead we point to overwhelming evidence“The Rhetorical Disadvantage of Science”Steps in the Research Process:Identify theory: large organizing principleDeduce hypotheses from theory If this theory is true, then this should happen

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