vocab chapter 2.docx - Chapter 2 Vocab Biological psychology specialize branch of psychology that studies the relationship between behavior and bodily

vocab chapter 2.docx - Chapter 2 Vocab Biological...

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Chapter 2 VocabBiological psychology: specialize branch of psychology that studies the relationship betweenbehavior and bodily processes and systems also called biopsychology or psychobiologyNeuroscience: The study of the nervous system especially the brainNeuron: highly specialized so that communicate information and electrical and chemical form; anerve cell Sensory neuron: type of neuron that conveys information to the brain for specialized receptor cells and sense organs and internal organsMotor neuron: type of neuron that signals muscles to relax or contractInterneuron: type of neuron that communicates information from one neuron to the nextCell body: processes nutrients and provides energy for the neuron the function; contains the cells nucleus; also called the soma Dendrites: multiple short fibers that extend from the neuron cell body and receive information from other neurons or from sensory receptor cellsAxon: The long fluid filled tube that carries a neurons messages to other body areasGlial cells: support cells that assist neurons by providing structural support, nutrition and removal of cells wastes; manufacture Myelin Myelin sheath: A white fatty covering wrapped around the axons of some neurons that increases their communication speedAction potential: A brief electrical impulse by which information is transmitted along the axon ofa neuron Stimulus threshold: The minimum level of stimulation required to activate a particular neuronResting potential: State in which a neuron is prepared to activate and communicate it’s messageif it receive sufficient stimulationAll or none law: The principle that either a neuron is sufficiently simulated in an action potentialoccurs or a neuron is not sufficiently stimulated and an action potential does not occur Synapse: The point of communication between two neurons
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Synaptic gap: The tiny space between the axon terminal of one neuron and the dendrite of an adjoining neuronAxon terminals: branches at the end of the axon that contains tiny pouches called synaptic vessels Neurotransmitters: Chemical messengers manufactured by neuronSynaptic transmission: The process through which neurotransmitters are released by one
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