Key Terms 2.docx - Key Terms(Define and Significance Davies Ethics of Friendship 1 Friendship a Davies writes that we must consider the meaning of

Key Terms 2.docx - Key Terms(Define and Significance Davies...

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Key Terms (Define and Significance) Davies “Ethics of Friendship” 1. Friendship a. Davies writes that we must consider the meaning of friendship in the Hebrew bible in a way that is different from its standard meaning in modern society. Sometimes a friendship can be about love, or have religious and political meaning. It can mean someone that you are in a loving relationship with, or someone you are associated with. b. There is a lot of ambiguity when it comes to defining what a friend is throughout the bible as there are different contexts the word exists in. There are many interpretations that try to explain what a “friend” is. Different Proverbs and rabbis have many different ideas of what a friend is and it shows that even the smallest word can have multiple variations depending on the interpreter. 2. Self interest a. He brings up an example in the book of Proverbs that says that friendship is based on self-interest. Friends are used to benefit each other and to help one progress to a further place in life. If a person has something that can get you something you need, you should befriend him or her. b. This is a very different notion of what defines a friendship today. If someone took a friend based on self-interest, it would seem fake and rude to do this and it not morally accepted in society. 3. Spiritual friendship De Vaux, “Divisions of Time” 4. Lunar calendar a. The lunar calendar was used in many ancient Near East civilizations and it is eleven days shorter than the regular year. The Mesopotamians, Egyptians, and Israelites adopted this calendar and the days start from morning to morning. Lunar months are 29 days and 12 hours and at first were given Canaanite names for the word month, but the Israelites later changed it to hodesh. There are 12 lunar months and each define a certain type of agriculture that is important during its specific time. For example: there are months that are named for wheat harvest, barley harvest, and planting trees. b. At first in primitive societies this wasn’t an issue, but then it became a matter of concern when religious holidays and civil institutions were being developed. The solar year was used instead as a solution to this. 5. Intercalation a. It is a supplementary month, an added 13 th month to the lunar year. It is not mentioned in the Old Testament until the very end, but to be used for a
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non-Israelite calendar. Because the lunar calendar was shorter than the solar calendar, it would not be consistent throughout the years and it would throw off when certain seasons for agriculture were to be done. By adding an extra month, it would make the lunar calander more efficient and functionable. b. After the 1 st century, Rabbis decided that it would be best to add an extra 30 days after every 19 years. They added a second Adar, which was the last month of the year.
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  • Winter '14
  • Chaya Halberstam
  • bible, Israelites, A., blood feud, ancient Israelite society

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