Psychology, 8th Edition by H. Gleitman, J. Gross & D. Reisberg.pdf

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Unformatted text preview: MEDIA & PRINT RESOURCES FOR INSTRUCTORS AND STUDENTS For Instructors INSTRUCTOR’S RESOURCE MANUAL by Bridgette Martin Hard (Stanford University), Debra Mashek (Harvey Mudd College), and Jeff Cooper (Trinity College Dublin, Ireland) The Instructor’s Manual includes detailed chapter outlines and summaries, discussion topics to engage students in lecture, classroom demonstrations with worksheets to engage students and reinforce concepts, and additional reading, film, and online resources. TEST BANK by Valeri Farmer-Dougan (Illinois State University), Matthew Isaak (University of Louisiana at Lafayette), and Joseph Etherton (Texas State University–San Marcos) Revised and expanded for the Eighth Edition, the Test Bank has been completely updated using an evidence-centered approach designed by Valerie Shute of Florida State University and Diego Zapata-Rivera of the Educational Testing Service. The Test Bank contains more than 2,500 multiple-choice questions structured around a concept map that are coded according to a taxonomy of educational objectives: • Factual questions test students’ basic understanding of facts and concepts. • Applied questions require students to apply knowledge in the solution of a problem. • Conceptual questions require students to engage in qualitative reasoning and to explain why things are as they are. Questions are further classified by section and difficulty, making it easy to construct tests and quizzes that are meaningful and diagnostic whether an instructor is creating an in-class quiz, midterm, or final exam. The Test Bank is available in print, Word RTF, PDF, and ExamView® Assessment Suite format. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE NEWS VIDEO CLIP DVD This DVD features more than 130 short clips that show students how the science of psychology is performed by today’s researchers. The DVD contains more than four hours of compelling interviews and demonstrations, featuring recent psychological research from peer-reviewed journals and relating research findings to students’ lives in an accessible and engaging format. STUDYING THE MIND VIDEO CLIP DVD This DVD contains more than an hour’s worth of interviews with some of today’s leading neuroscientists, who discuss how the latest research, technology, and conceptual models have led to advances in our understanding of how the mind works. Featured researchers include Mark D’Esposito, Michael Gazzaniga, Marcia Johnson, Elizabeth Phelps, and John Gabrieli. INSTRUCTOR’S RESOURCE DVD The Instructor’s Resource DVD provides an array of resources for instructors to create easy and effective lecture presentations: • Lecture PowerPoint slides with clicker questions • Media Enhanced PowerPoint slides and Video Enhanced PowerPoint slides • Art PowerPoint slides • Image Gallery of art featuring all of the line art and photos from the text • BlackBoard/WebCT coursepacks • BlackBoard/WebCT web quizzes and Test Bank • Computerized Test Bank INSTRUCTOR’S RESOURCE SITE The Instructor’s Resource Site is an online source of instructional content for use in lectures, modified classrooms, and distance education courses. The site includes: • • • • Lecture PowerPoint Slides Clicker Questions in PowerPoint format Art PowerPoint slides Image Gallery of art featuring all of the line art and photos from the text • BlackBoard/WebCT Coursepack • BlackBoard/WebCT Web Quizzes and Test Bank • Computerized Test Bank and ExamView® Assessment Suite Software For Students STUDYSPACE wwnorton.com/studyspace This free student Web site provides a rich array of multimedia resources and review materials within a proven, task-oriented study plan. Each chapter is arranged in an effective Organize, Learn, and Connect structure, with review materials such as chapter outlines, flashcards, quizzes and ebook links. The Norton Quiz Assessment Program gives students customized chapter-by-chapter study plans that target specific content areas for review. The StudySpace also offers: • Chapter Audio Podcasts that serve as chapter overviews and discussions of key concepts. The content is chapterspecific and is organized around the key Learning Objectives. • Animations that cover more topics and psychological processes in the text. They can be accessed on StudySpace and launched from the ebook. • Drag-and-Drop Labeling Exercises that use the line art from the text to help students understand key diagrams and complex structures. • Visual Quizzes that integrate the revised art program from the text to help students review the details of important figures and diagrams. • A regularly updated Psychology in the News feed. • Video exercises introduce students to the latest research trends in psychology. EBOOK nortonebooks.com Same great content, half the price! The ebook links to StudySpace and offers many useful electronic tools, such as highlighting and sticky notes. STUDY GUIDE by Susan Oestreicher (University of Wisconsin at Oshkosh) and Edgar E. Coons (New York University) This Study Guide provides additional opportunities for selftesting and study suggestions. Each chapter contains a concept map showing the linkage of ideas, learning objectives, practice questions with answers, a self test, and keywords from the text. ZAPS wwnorton.com/zaps The Norton Psychology Labs (produced by the psychology departments at the University of Twente and the University of Rotterdam) are a collection of interactive online labs that allow students to participate in classic psychological studies. W. W. Norton & Company has been independent since its founding in 1923, when William Warder Norton and Mary D. Herter Norton first published lectures delivered at the People’s Institute, the adult education division of New York City’s Cooper Union. The firm soon expanded its program beyond the Institute, publishing books by celebrated academics from America and abroad. By mid-century, the two major pillars of Norton’s publishing program—trade books and college texts—were firmly established. In the 1950s, the Norton family transferred control of the company to its employees, and today—with a staffoff our hundred and a comparable number of trade, college, and professional titles published each year— W. W. Norton & Company stands as the largest and oldest publishing house owned wholly by its employees. Copyright © 2011, 2007, 2004, 1999, 1995, 1991, 1986, 1981 by W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. All rights reserved Printed in Canada Editor: Sheri L. Snavely Associate editor: Sarah England Editorial assistants: Wamiq Jawaid and Josh Bisker Project editor: Rebecca A. Homiski Production manager: Chris Granville Marketing manager: Amber Chow Design: Antonina Krass Photo editor: Trish Marx Illustrations: Dragonfly Media Group Composition: Preparé Manufacturing: Transcontinental Interglobe Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Gleitman, Henry. Psychology / Henry Gleitman, James Gross, Daniel Reisberg. — 8th ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-393-93250-8 (hardcover) 1. Psychology—Textbooks. I. Gross, James J., Ph. D. II. Reisberg, Daniel. III. Title. BF121.G58 2010 150—dc22 2009042599 ISBN 978-0-393-11726-4 (pdf ebook) W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 500 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10110 W. W. Norton & Company Ltd., Castle House, 75/76 Wells Street, London W1T 3QT 1234567890 E I G H T H E D I T I O N Psychology H E N RY J A M E S D A N I E L G L E I T M A N G RO S S R E I S B E RG W • W • N O RTO N & C O M PA N Y N e w Yo r k • L o n d o n HENRY GLEITMAN is Professor of Psychology and the former chair of the department at the University of Pennsylvania. He is the recipient of the American Psychological Foundation’s Distinguished Teaching in Psychology Award (1982) and, from the University of Pennsylvania, the Abrams Award (1988) and the Lindback Award (1977). He has served as President of the APA’s Division 1: General Psychology and Division 10: Psychology and the Arts. Most importantly, Professor Gleitman has taught introductory psychology for five decades to over 40,000 students. JAMES GROSS is Professor of Psychology at Stanford University and Director of the Stanford Psychophysiology Laboratory. Professor Gross’s research focuses on emotion and emotion regulation processes in healthy and clinical populations. His 150 or so publications include The Handbook of Emotion Regulation (Guilford, 2007), and he has received early career awards from the American Psychological Association, the Western Psychological Association, and the Society for Psychophysiological Research. Professor Gross is also an award-winning teacher, a Bass University Fellow in Undergraduate Education, and the Director of the Stanford Psychology One Teaching Program. His teaching awards include Stanford’s Dean’s Award for Distinguished Teaching, the Stanford Phi Beta Kappa Teaching Prize, Stanford’s Postdoctoral Mentoring Award, and Stanford’s highest teaching prize, the Walter J. Gores Award for Excellence in Teaching. DANIEL REISBERG, author of the bestselling Cognition: Exploring the Science of the Mind, Fourth Edition (Norton, 2010), is Professor of Psychology and chair of the department at Reed College in Portland, Oregon. Professor Reisberg has over two decades of experience in teaching Psychology’s Intro course, and also teaches a popular course in Cognition; he teaches advanced seminars on Thinking and on Psychology & The Law. His research has focused on the nature of mental imagery as well as on people’s ability to remember emotionally significant events. He has served on the editorial boards of many of the field’s journals, and also serves as a consultant for the justice system, working with police and the courts to improve the quality of eyewitness evidence. To all the people who have made this book possible— Our teachers, our colleagues, our students, and our families. CONTENTS IN BRIEF Contents in Brief Prologue: What Is Psychology? • 1 1 Research Methods • 20 2 The Genetic and Evolutionary Roots of Behavior • 50 3 The Brain and the Nervous System • 84 4 Sensation • 132 5 Perception • 180 6 Consciousness • 218 7 Learning • 258 8 Memory • 300 9 Thinking • 340 10 Language • 378 11 Intelligence • 424 12 Motivation and Emotion • 460 13 Social Psychology • 504 14 Development • 544 15 Personality • 590 16 Psychopathology • 634 17 Treatment of Mental Disorders • 676 v Contents PROLOGUE: WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGY? 1 The Breadth of Psychology’s Content • 2 Morality and the Brain • The Broad Effects of Brain Damage • Decision Making • Innate Tendencies • Animals at Play • Social Behavior in Humans Psychology’s Diverse Methods and Perspectives • 8 The Neural Basis of Emotional Memory • The Evolutionary Basis for Emotional Remembering • Cognitive Influences on Emotional Memory • Social Influences on Emotional Memory • The Cultural Setting of Emotional Memory • A Developmental Perspective on Emotional Memory • Disorders of Emotional Memory What Unites Psychology? • 16 A Shared Set of Thematic Concerns • A Commitment to Scientific Methods CHAPTER 1 RESEARCH METHODS 20 Making Observations • 22 Defining the Question • Systematically Collecting Data • Defining the Sample • Assessing External Validity • Monitoring Demand Characteristics Working with Data • 28 Descriptive Statistics • Inferential Statistics Observational Studies • 36 Ambiguity about Causation Establishing Cause and Effect: The Power of Experiments • 38 Experimental Groups versus Control Groups • Random Assignment • WithinSubject Comparisons • Internal Validity • Beyond the Single Experiment Research Ethics • 43 The Power of Science • 45 Some Final Thoughts: Methodological Eclecticism • 46 Summary • 48 CHAPTER 2 THE GENETIC AND EVOLUTIONARY ROOTS OF BEHAVIOR 50 Genetics and DNA • 52 Genes • Gene Expression • Gene Transmission • Interactions among Genes • Polygenic Inheritance Evolution by Natural Selection • 58 The Principles of Natural Selection • Genes and Evolution • Evidence for Evolution by Natural Selection • The Unity of Life The Genetics and Evolution of Behavior • 65 The Biological Roots of Smiling • The Genetics of Intelligence • The Evolution of Mating Patterns Some Final Thoughts: The Strengths and the Limits of Evolutionary Theorizing • 81 Summary • 82 CHAPTER 3 THE BRAIN AND THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 84 The Organism as a Machine • 86 Building Blocks of the Nervous System • 88 The Neuron • Glia Communication among Neurons • 92 Activity and Communication within the Neuron • Explaining the Action Potential • Propagation of the Action Potential • All-or-None Law • The Synapse • The Synaptic Mechanism • Neurotransmitters • Drugs and Neurotransmitters Communication through the Bloodstream • 103 Methods for Studying the Nervous System • 105 Recording from Individual Neurons • Studying the Effects of Brain Damage • Recording from the Whole Brain • The Power of Combining Techniques The Architecture of the Nervous System • 112 The Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems • The Anatomy of the Brain • Lateralization The Cerebral Cortex • 118 Projection Areas • Association Areas • The Results of Cortical Damage vii Plasticity • 125 Changes in Neuronal Connections • Cortical Reorganization • New Neurons • Repairing Damage to the Nervous System Some Final Thoughts: Do All Psychological Questions Have Biological Answers? • 129 Summary • 130 CHAPTER 4 SENSATION 132 The Origins of Knowledge • 134 The Passive Perceiver • The Active Perceiver Psychophysics • 136 Sensory Thresholds • Detection and Decision A Survey of the Senses • 142 Sensory Coding • Sensory Adaptation • The Vestibular Sense • The Skin Senses • Pain • Smell • Taste Hearing • 153 The Stimulus: Sound • From Sound Waves to Hearing Vision • 160 The Stimulus: Light • Gathering the Stimulus: The Eye • The Visual Receptors • Contrast Effects • Color • The Neural Basis of Color Vision • Perceiving Shapes Some Final Thoughts: The Active Perceiver • 177 Summary • 178 CHAPTER 5 PERCEPTION 180 Form Perception: What Is It? • 182 The Importance of Features • The Importance of Organization Network Models of Perception • 188 Feature Nets • From Features to Geons to Meaning The Neuroscience of Vision • 192 The Visual Pathway • The Binding Problem Perceptual Constancy • 196 Unconscious Inference • Illusions Distance Perception: Where Is It? • 200 Binocular Cues • Monocular Cues • The Perception of Depth through Motion • The Role of Redundancy Motion Perception: What Is It Doing? • 203 Retinal Motion • Apparent Movement • Eye Movements • Induced Motion • The Correspondence Problem Perceptual Selection: Attention • 208 Selection • Perception in the Absence of Attention Other Modalities • 212 Some Final Thoughts: Seeing, Knowing, and the Perceiver’s Active Role • 214 Summary • 216 CHAPTER 6 CONSCIOUSNESS 218 Introspection and the Functions of Consciousness • 220 Translating Thoughts into Words • The Cognitive Unconscious • Brain Damage and Unconscious Functioning • Unconscious Attributions • Mistaken Introspections • The Function of Consciousness The Neural Basis for Consciousness • 227 The Mind-Body Problem • The Many Brain Areas Needed for Consciousness • Neural Correlates of Consciousness • The Global Workspace Hypothesis Varieties of Consciousness • 233 Sleep • Hypnosis • Religious States • Drug-Induced Changes in Consciousness Some Final Thoughts: The Unsolved Mysteries • 255 Summary • 256 ix CHAPTER 7 LEARNING 258 The Perspective of Learning Theory • 260 Habituation • 261 Classical Conditioning • 263 Pavlov and the Conditioned Response • The Major Phenomena of Classical Conditioning • The Relationship between the CR and the UR Instrumental Conditioning • 278 Thorndike and the Law of Effect • Skinner and Operant Behavior • The Major Phenomena of Instrumental Conditioning • Changing Behaviors or Acquiring Knowledge? Observational Learning • 289 Varieties of Learning • 291 Biological Influences on Learning: Belongingness • Different Types of Learning • Similarities in How Different Species Learn The Neural Basis for Learning • 296 Some Final Thoughts: Learning Theory and Beyond • 297 Summary • 298 CHAPTER 8 MEMORY 300 Acquisition, Storage, Retrieval • 302 Acquisition • 303 Working Memory, Long-Term Memory • Establishing Long-Term Memories Storage • 312 Retrieval • 313 Partial Retrieval • Effective Retrieval Cues • Encoding Specificity Memory Gaps, Memory Errors • 317 Forgetting • Memory Intrusions • Memory: An Overall Assessment Varieties of Memory • 327 A Hierarchy of Memory Types • Episodic and Semantic Memory • Possible Subdivisions of Episodic Memory • Explicit and Implicit Memory Some Final Thoughts: Different Types, But Common Principles • 337 Summary • 338 CHAPTER 9 THINKING 340 Mental Representations • 342 Distinguishing Images and Symbols • Mental Images • Propositions Judgment: Drawing Conclusions from Experience • 348 The Availability Heuristic • The Representativeness Heuristic • Dual-Process Theories Reasoning: Drawing Implications from Our Beliefs • 354 Confirmation Bias • Faulty Logic • Triggers for Good Reasoning • Judgment and Reasoning: An Overview Decision Making: Choosing Among Options • 358 Framing Effects • Affective Forecasting • Too Many Options • Reason-Based Choice • Decision Making: An Overview Problem Solving: Finding a Path Toward a Goal • 365 The Role of the Goal State • Hierarchical Organization • Automaticity • Obstacles to Problem Solving • Overcoming Obstacles to Solutions • Restructuring • Creative Thinking • Experts Some Final Thoughts: Better Thinking • 375 Summary • 376 CHAPTER 10 LANGUAGE 378 The Building Blocks of Language • 380 The Sound Units • Morphemes and Words • Phrases and Sentences How Language Conveys Meaning • 385 The Meanings of Words • The Meanings of Sentences • How We Understand How We Learn a Language • 396 The Social Origins of Language Learning • Discovering the Building Blocks of Language • The Growth of Word Meaning • The Progression to Adult Language Language Learning in Changed Environments • 404 Wild Children • Isolated Children • Language without Sound • Language without a Model • Children Deprived of Access to Some of the Meanings • Children Exposed to More than One Language: The Case of Bilingualism Language Learning with Changed Endowments • 410 The Sensitive Period Hypothesis • Language in Nonhumans Language and Thought • 415 How Language Connects to Thought • Do People Who Talk Differently Come to Understand the World Differently? • How Can We Study Language and Thought? xi Some Final Thoughts: Language and Cognition • 421 Summary • 422 CHAPTER 11 INTELLIGENCE 424 Intelligence Testing • 426 Measuring Intelligence • Reliability and Validity What Is Intelligence? The Psychometric Approach • 428 The Logic of Psychometrics • Factor Analysis and the Idea of General Intelligence • A Hierarchical Model of Intelligence • Fluid and Crystallized G The Building Blocks of Intelligence • 432 Mental Speed • Working Memory and Attention • Executive Control • Other Contributions to Intellectual Functioning Intelligence Beyond the IQ Test • 436 Practical Intelligence • Emotional Intelligence • The Theory of Multiple Intelligences • The Cultural Context of Intelligence The Roots of Intelligence • 441 The Politics of IQ Testing • The Problems with “Nature vs. Nurture” • Genetics and Individual IQ • Environment and Individual IQ • Heritability Ratios • Group Differences in IQ Some Final Thoughts: Scientific Evidence and Democratic Values • 457 Summary • 458 CHAPTER 12 MOTIVATION AND EMOTION 460 Motivational States • 462 Thermoregulation • 464 Hunger, Eating, and Obesity • 466 Physiological Aspects of Hunger and Eating • Cultural and Cognitive Aspects of Hunger and Eating • Obesity Threat and Aggression • 473 Physiological Aspects of Threat and Aggression • Cultural and Cognitive Aspects of Threat and Aggression Sexual Behavior • 478 Physiological Aspects of Sexuality • Cultural and Cognitive Aspects of Sexuality • Sexual Orientation Motives Beyond Drives • 485 The Motive to Belong • The Motive to Achieve T...
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