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Italian 20X STUDYGUIDE: 30 multiple choice questions and 2 open ended questions. Catholic and Communist cultures: - Historical and political conditions for their emergence - Values - Goals - Organizations created around them - Supporters - Decline (when and its causes) The Southern Question: - What it is and what it represents o question: Is there a distinctive Southern culture as opposed to a Northern one? o Represents the contrasting difference between the South and North post WWII. South was remote from the “heart of political power” Lack of industrial sector and infrastructures - Images used to describe the South o Barbaric o Fragmented o Lack of civic consciousness o Incapable of self rule o Individualistic, selfish o Tension with north: “Two Italies in Italy, each one fighting for supremacy.” - Causes of the South backwardness o - Consequences of the South backwardness - Concept of “amoral familism” o Form of behavior directed solely towards the pursuit of the good of the family (endemic inability to act for the common good and lack of civic consciousness) o Tendency of southern families to favor family groups o Main reason for the South’s backwardness. - Differences in historical and political conditions between North and South o Every since Southern Italy unified with all of Italy, South has been seen as lacking all traits of the ideal model o Tension increased shortly after unification (ruling class North lacked understanding of Southern’s culture) –late 19 th century dualism began o SOUTH: Greatest limitations: poverty and ignorance; people unable to defend themselves and assert interest Unable to accept the discipline of organization= disorderly, liable to rebellions and unsuited to long term political preparation US influence= old images of Southern ‘lag’ transformed to idea of ‘underdevelopment’
Confirmed stereotype of the south: immobility and exclusion from history o NORTH Predatory nature of ruling class contributes to poverty and ignorance Fascism born during the 1900s - Solutions put forward by the Italian state to solve the Southern Question and their results o Two initiatives set forth:

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