Italian Culture Final Study Guide .docx - Italian Culture...

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I talian Culture Final Study Guide 30 MC + 2 FRQ- need green scantron and blue book December 7th Italy and Europe Reasons for Italy to join the European project after WWII To try to avoid another war- new ideas for lasting peace and prosperity Article 11 of the Italian Constitution says: Italy and Italian government should have strong commitment to international organizations Strong support for European powers: Italians though European institutions should take on some decision making in lieu of the italian situation Support for the single market (because it was largely an export economy) Support for the single currency Support for a deeper and wider EU Preference for a ‘global’ form of integration, incorporating political, military and economic aspects European Union: largest economic market and important in a democratic point of view Founders: new ideas for lasting peace/prosperity + wanting a union of countries in Europe as opposed to leaving countries separate. Konrad Adenauer Robert Schuman Winston Churchill- prime minister of Great Britain who believed European countries should come together (except Great Britain) Alcide De Gasperi Jean Monnet EU milestones: from 6 to 28 countries 1957- Treaties of Rome 1992- The Maastricht Treaty 2002- The Euro 2004-2007- East meets the West Very geopolitically significant + relationship with US 2010-2017- Economic Crisis, Immigration, and Brexit Enthusiasm towards Europe (1960s-1990s) Italian Europhilia (the First Republic and the Cold War) Post war leadership: Alcide de Gasperi e Altiero Spinelli (Christian Democrat) who realized after experience Italy had with Fascism→ supporting institutions outside of Italy= ground Italy to democracy and not extremist sides like Communism and Fascism Italian left and right decisively pro integration = everyone agreed on supporting Europe Italian Left started to be very Europist during 70s Italian Right was naturally pro-European Public opinion is also Euro-Enthusiast Europe can modernize italy (post war Italy needed modernization (no industry + infrastructure, very backward) Europe can pacify europe- insulate Europe from other wars European identity can be a unifying factor Europeans should take on decision-making in lieu of Italian institutions Support for a deeper and wider EU= Italy has always supported more Europe + less Italy Support for single market- Italians are largely an exported economy (sell products OUTSIDE of Italy)
Skepticism towards Europe (1960s-present)- ¾ of leading parties in Italy are now Euroscepticists The rise of Euroscepticism (at the end of the Cold War and the Second Italian Republic) Tangentopoli: the end of the first republic The end of the cold war: a new political order End of post-war political system when Christian Democratic party + Communist party declined Emergence of new , anti- European Parties Northern league

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