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Italian Culture Final Study Guide30 MC + 2 FRQ- need green scantron and blue bookDecember 7thItaly and Europe ●Reasons for Italy to join the European project after WWII○To try to avoid another war- new ideas for lasting peace and prosperity○Article 11 of the Italian Constitution says: Italy and Italian government should have strongcommitment to international organizations ○Strong support for European powers: ■Italians though European institutions should take on some decision making in lieuof the italian situation○Support for the single market (because it was largely an export economy)○Support for the single currency○Support for a deeper and wider EU ○Preference for a ‘global’ form of integration, incorporating political, military and economic aspects●European Union: largest economic market and important in a democratic point of view ○Founders: new ideas for lasting peace/prosperity + wanting a union of countries in Europe as opposed to leaving countries separate. ■Konrad Adenauer■Robert Schuman■Winston Churchill- prime minister of Great Britain who believed European countries should come together (except Great Britain) ■Alcide De Gasperi■Jean Monnet ●EU milestones: from 6 to 28 countries○1957- Treaties of Rome○1992- The Maastricht Treaty○2002- The Euro○2004-2007- East meets the West■Very geopolitically significant + relationship with US ○2010-2017- Economic Crisis, Immigration, and Brexit ●Enthusiasm towards Europe (1960s-1990s)○Italian Europhilia (the First Republic and the Cold War)■Post war leadership: Alcide de Gasperi e Altiero Spinelli (Christian Democrat) who realized after experience Italy had with Fascism→ supporting institutions outside of Italy= ground Italy to democracy and not extremist sides like Communism and Fascism ■Italian left and right decisively pro integration = everyone agreed on supporting Europe●Italian Left started to be very Europist during 70s●Italian Right was naturally pro-European■Public opinion is also Euro-Enthusiast ●Europe can modernize italy (post war Italy needed modernization (no industry + infrastructure, very backward) ●Europe can pacify europe- insulate Europe from other wars●European identity can be a unifying factor ●Europeans should take on decision-making in lieu of Italian institutions ■Support for a deeper and wider EU= Italy has always supported more Europe + less Italy ■Support for single market- Italians are largely an exported economy (sell products OUTSIDE of Italy)
●Skepticism towards Europe (1960s-present)- ¾ of leading parties in Italy are now Euroscepticists ○The rise of Euroscepticism (at the end of the Cold War and the Second Italian Republic) ○Tangentopoli: the end of the first republic ○The end of the cold war: a new political order■End of post-war political system when Christian Democratic party + Communist party declined ○Emergence of new , anti- European Parties ■Northern league●