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EE 302 - Unit D - Article

EE 302 - Unit D - Article - Future Trends in Power System...

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24 IEEE Computer Applications in Power ISSN 0895-0156/02/$17.00©2002 IEEE W ith the premise that transmission system loading will continue to increase and the trend will be toward maximum utilization of transmission sys- tems close to thermal capacity, coordinated real-time con- trol of power injection and flow on transmission lines will be an important issue. Minimization of operating margins or maximum utilization of existing transmission assets with increased system security and reliability will rely heavily on traditional as well as new control equipment. This article looks into the future state of power sys- tem operations and control based on a number of assumptions and provides an analysis of the direction that this area might take over the next 25 years. Issues related to development of techniques and requirements for fully coordinated, high-bandwidth, and robust con- trols for power systems are discussed, and some methodologies are suggested. Proceeding toward this B. Fardanesh is with the New York Power Authority and Manhattan College, New York, USA. Future Trends in Power System Control © EYEWIRE To buy time for online computations needed for central coordination and to attain wider-area objectives for optimum operation, one has had to resort to decomposition and, therefore, multilevel hierarchical control schemes B. Fardanesh
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July 2002 25 ultimate goal, system-wide auto- matic voltage control (SAVC), sys- tem-wide automatic power control (SAPC), and the integrated system-wide automatic control (SAC) concepts are introduced for coordination of injection (shunt) and routing (series) controllers for both real and reactive power. Ideal Control Scenario: Centrality The ideal scenario for control of a power system would be to have the capability to instantly com- pute an optimum (in some clearly defined sense) operating condi- tion and keep the system at that operating condition using the available controls. This will require instant knowledge of sys- tem topology information and the system real and reactive load. In this context, instantly or real-time means fast enough to provide a required bandwidth. For example, to provide a band- width of 100 Hz, coordination/control computation cycles of well under a few msec must be achieved. Optimum operating conditions consist of maintaining a constant frequency while supplying the system load, maintaining desired voltage profiles and line flows, respecting the physical limits of the equipment, and observing a defined set of security and economy criteria. Of course, stable system operation despite disturbances is of paramount importance and the premiere objective. In this scenario, considering a model-based control algorithm for example, upon occurrence of a system con- tingency, the change in system topology will be instantly detected or estimated at a central location, and the sys- tem model will be updated accordingly. Then, as repeat- edly as necessary, the trajectory to the final operating point will be planned instantly starting from the initial
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EE 302 - Unit D - Article - Future Trends in Power System...

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