203 Study Guide 2 W18(1).doc - Study Guide 1 Topics under...

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Study Guide 1
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 Topics under examination: Congress, The Presidency, The Judicial Branch and Supreme Court of the United States, Political Socialization and Political Ideology, and the Media Concepts you should know: Congress: not the senate. Is the House and the Senate. Dual court system reflecting federalism Structural/Organizational Elements Bicameralism: a 2-chamber government: House of Reps and Senate House 435 members distributed based on population Elections every 2 years More partisan (why?)- representative of district ( more specialized because they represent a smaller area) Senate 100 members distributed equally across 50 states Elections every 6 years (what is the rotation, and why is rotation important?) : seats up every two years- senators run for president when seat is up More media coverage/prestige Districting Redistricting and Reapportionment: occur every 10 years to accommodate the change in population size. The change in number of representatives a state gets is reapportionment, while redistricting is when the district lines are redrawn based on population size. Census: every 10 years, determines population size in order to do redistricting and reapportionment Gerrymandering: when district lines are drawn in order to favor a certain party, illegal. Representation Models of Representations Delegate model of representation: make decisions based on what they know. Trustee model of representation: make decisions based on what the people want even if it is not in their best interest. Means of interpreting Representativeness of Congress Descriptive Representation: What does our congress "look like" (i.e. race, age, sex) Older/ middle aged, white, males (does it represent our country “appearance” wise- race, sex, age, economic status) 2
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Substantive Representation : does it help the country? Ideologically- does congress actually represent the country?(No) The Presidency Constitutionally mandated roles—what are actions associated with each role? Chief of state: the titular head of a nation as distinct from the head of the government. President Chief legislator: encouraging Congress to pass certain bills or take specific actions. When Congress does pass bills, the president reviews each bill and decides whether to sign it into law or veto it. Chief diplomat: more autonomy in foreign affairs, treaties, executive agreements, receives ambassadors Commander in chief: president can deploy, or “make” war, but congress declares war Chief Executive: vague policy, increasing size of federal bureaucracy, executive orders ( proclamations, national security devices NSD, presidential decision directives), signing statements Expansion of presidential power Whig Model: president power is strictly based on what the constitution says Stewardship Model: president power is anything not forbidden in the constitution, this increased the president's power Modern Presidency Model: power is now centralized on the president, and anything going
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