P104S+-+Midterm+Study+Guide+-+Fall+2016.docx

P104S+-+Midterm+Study+Guide+-+Fall+2016.docx

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Uu; P104S: The Social Animal Fall 2016 Midterm Study Guide Introduction What is social psychology? -the scientific study of the feeling s, thoughts, and behaviors of individuals in social situations. How does it differ from other subfields in psychology (e.g. abnormal, personality, cognitive psychology) and from other fields in general (e.g. anthropology, sociology)? -diff abnormal: SP every day behavior -diff personality: SP situational behavior -diff cognitive: SP social behavior -diff sociaology: SP individual behavior What is the person x situation matrix and how does it relate to personality and social psychology? -column: personality psy: people behave similarly across different situations -row: social psy: in the same situation different people behave similarly Four themes to keep in mind: importance of construal, culture, natural selection, and people -importance of construal: stim ulus(observed behavior& situational context)—construal 我们对 stimulus 的想法— response(emotional reactions & overt behavior) -culture: individualism and collectivism -natural selection: emphasize continuity and universality across different species and culture, imcompatible with culture idea -human-humans are ultra social Research Design What are the three goals of science? - description of events: define, classify, categorize -prediction of events: hypothesis -explanation of events: knowing why: theory: set of principles that can expla i n the faces , causation What are the key aspects of experimental and correlational studies and how do they differ? Correlation study: -variable measured, no manipulation -can tell direction & magnitude of relation -gets you to the level of prediction -third variables, confounds Experiemental research: -independent vs dependent variables -manipulated vs measured - causation
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What is the third variable problem in correlational studies? - third variable: have causal influences on 2 variables -self-selection: participant select his or her level on each variable, eg: researcher can’t assign he or she is married or not How do you interpret a correlational study? What other types of research designs do social psychologists use (e.g. observational research, archival research)? -obeservational research : 去观察 participant 的行为,生活, then came up with hypothesis -archival research - survey: asking people for questions and then discern the beliefs of some groups (random sample) How does random assignment work in experimental designs? -RA is attempt to e i nsure that participants have equal probability of being assigned to any experimental condition -therefore, minimizes probability of pre-existing differences between conditions - therefore, rule out confounding variables and self-selection bias and achieve logic of 1 to 1 What is the validity tradeoff?
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