SY101-Final-Exam.docx - SY101 Final Exam Chapter 1...

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SY101 Final Exam Chapter 1 Functionalism – a sociological school of thought that stresses how human behaviour is governed by social structures that are based mainly on shared values and that contribute to social stability Social Class – a position people occupy in a hierarchy that is shaped by economic criteria, including wealth and income Conflict theory – a sociological school of thought that focuses on how large social structures, such as the relations among classes, produce social stability in some circumstances and social change in others Theory – a conjecture about the way observed facts are related Symbols – ideas that carry meaning Symbolic Interactionism – a sociological school of thought that highlights how interpersonal communication in face-to-face settings creates subjective meanings that people attach to their social circumstances Gender – one’s sense of being masculine or feminine as conventionally defined by society Feminism – a sociological school of thought claiming that male domination and female subordination are determined not by biological necessity but by structures of power and social convention Patriarchy – the system of male domination of women Social Structures – stable patterns of social relations Sociological imagination – the quality of mind that enables one to see the connection between personal troubles and social structures Microstructures – patterns of social relations formed during face-to-face interaction Mesostructures – patterns of social relations in organizations that involve people who are often not intimately acquainted and who often do not interact face-to-face Macrostructures – overarching patterns of social relations that lie outside and above one’s circle of intimates and acquaintances Global Structures – patterns of social relations that lie outside and above the national level Scientific Revolution – beginning in Europe about 1550, the creation of a method of inquiry encouraging the view that sound conclusions about the workings of the world must be based on solid evidence, not just speculation Democratic Revolution – the process, beginning about 1750, in which the citizens of the United States, France and other countries broadened their participation in government, thereby suggesting that people can organize society and solve social problems
Industrial Revolution – beginning in Britain in the 1780s, a process of rapid economic transformation that involved the large-scale application of science and technology to industrial processes, the creation of factories, and the formation of a working class Social solidarity – a property of social groups that increases with the degree to which a group’s members share beliefs and values, and the frequency and intensity with which they interact Rate – the number of times an event happens in a given period per 100000 members of the population Altruistic Suicide – the type of suicide that occurs when norms govern behaviour so tightly that

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