Experiment2

Experiment2 - CHEM 241L Bioanalytical Analysis of Glucose...

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CHEM 241L: Bioanalytical Analysis of Glucose in Sports Drinks 54 2 Experiment 2 Bioanalytical Analysis of Glucose in Sports Drinks Read Sections 4-8 (Chapter 4), 18-2, 18-3, and 18-4 (Chapter 18) in Harris, 7 th ed. Take the time to look over the Excel Graphing Tutorial presented in Experiment 0 of your lab manual. Note: You need to bring your laptop to lab for this experiment BACKGROUND & THEORY Science of Sports Drinks Formulation The formulation of sports drinks dates back to 1965 when athletes at the University of Florida were continuously suffering from improper rehydration during sporting events. Attempts to rehydrate with water or juices left athletes feeling sick or bloated from improper or inefficient fluid intake. Scientists at the University of Florida and the Gatorade® Science Institute have developed beverages that aim to successfully prevent dehydration and provide energy to athletes during strenuous exercise. The optimized formulation of sports drinks includes water, simple and complex carbohydrates (6 %), citric acid (flavoring), and a variety of salts. The key to the carbohydrate content is a balance of providing enough energy in a source that is readily metabolized (broken down) by the body, without overloading with carbohydrates which would slow down fluid delivery. The simple sugars, such as glucose and fructose, are metabolized more quickly because they are direct substrates for glycolysis (the breakdown of carbohydrates by metabolic enzymes). The structures of both glucose and fructose are shown in Figure 1. As can be seen from the two structures in Figure 1, glucose and fructose are monosaccharides (mono = one and saccharide = sugar). In contrast, more complex sugars such as sucrose (Figure 2) are disaccharides . This means that they are composed of two monosaccharides. As can be seen from Figure 2, sucrose is composed of both Reading Assignment
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CHEM 241L: Bioanalytical Analysis of Glucose in Sports Drinks 55 glucose and fructose. In order for sucrose, or any disaccharide, to be metabolized by the body, it must first be broken down into the respective monosaccharide units. For this reason disaccharides are metabolized much more slowly then monosaccharides. O H OH H H H CH 2 H CH 2 OH OH H CH 2 OH OH H HO H O β -D-Glucose β -D-Fructose Figure 1. Structures of glucose and fructose. O H OH H H OH H OH CH 2 OH H CH 2 OH H CH 2 OH OH H H O O Sucrose Figure 2. The structure of sucrose. Bioanalytical Sensors Biosensors are small portable analytical devices that combine the selectivity of biomolecules to some type of signal transducer. As illustrated in Figure 3, biosensors and chemical sensors are based on a very simple principle: a selective chemical receptor is associated with a transducer, which translates the recognition event into a physically measurable value, thus allowing one to selectively measure the amount of analyte in a solution. Sensor technology is applicable to many areas and Table 1 summarizes just some of the common uses of sensors.
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Experiment2 - CHEM 241L Bioanalytical Analysis of Glucose...

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