easier_english_student_dictionary_upper-int.pdf - EASIER ENGLISH STUDENT DICTIONARY EASIER ENGLISH STUDENT DICTIONARY General editor P.H Collin Preface

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Unformatted text preview: EASIER ENGLISH STUDENT DICTIONARY EASIER ENGLISH STUDENT DICTIONARY General editor P.H. Collin Preface By 2050, it is estimated that fifty percent of the world’s population will have some competence in English. Many of these people will regard themselves as improvers rather than learners and will have only occasional need to quickly check the meaning of a word in a dictionary. This dictionary is a portable, easy-to-use quick reference tool for a large number of words and phrases, rather than a substitute for the detailed guidance of a grammar or course book. It includes commonly heard terms, with an indication of their relevant frequency, and many more terms from the worlds of work and communication and of modern society generally. Each word is individually defined, and no words, not even adverbs, are listed without a definition. Examples and collocations are given for words that are likely to be used in practice, in order to provide patterns for the user’s own production of English sentences. Less frequently encountered words, which only need to be recognised and understood, are given definitions only. Each word, including compound words and phrasal verbs, has its own easy-to-find main entry in bold type. Each word has a pronunciation in the International Phonetic Alphabet. Typical phrases and idioms associated with the main term are shown in bold type and separately defined within the entry. The meaning of the main senses of each word is given clearly and simply, using a limited and easily understood vocabulary. Meanings are grouped together by their part of speech. Extra help is offered in Notes at the end of some entries. These include unusual inflected forms and warnings about words which sound the same but have different spellings and can be confused with each other. The major differences in US and British spelling are also noted. Synonyms and antonyms (opposites) are given for many words. Parts of speech abbr adj adv article conj (abbreviation) (adjective) (adverb) (conjunction) interj (interjection) modal verb noun plural noun [always takes a plural verb] prefix prep pron suffix verb (preposition) (pronoun) Symbols The numbers ①, ②, ③ indicate words which are commonly used, from ① = the most basic and essential, ② = frequent and useful to know, to ③ = starting to develop a wider vocabulary. 쐽 before a new part of speech 쎲 before examples 왍 before a phrase or collocation 앳 before an idiom 쒁 an explanation of the word will be found at the place indicated 쏡 extra information will be found at the place indicated Pronunciation The following symbols have been used to show the pronunciation of the main words in the dictionary. Stress has been indicated by a main stress mark (  ) and a secondary stress mark (  ). Note that these are only guides, as the stress of the word changes according to its position in the sentence. Vowels  ɑ ɒ a aυ aə aυə ɔ ɔ e eə e eυ  i i ə ə u u υ υə ( Consonants back harm stop type how hire hour course annoy head fair make go word keep happy about fit near annual pool book tour shut b d ð d f  h j k l m n ŋ p r s ʃ t tʃ θ v w x  z buck dead other jump fare gold head yellow cab leave mix nil sing print rest save shop take change theft value work loch measure zone A a /e/, A noun the first letter of the alphabet, followed by B 쑗 Do you mean ‘pendant’ spelt with an ‘a’ or with an ‘e’? 왍 from A to Z completely, all the way through a /ə, e/, an /ən, n/ article 1. one 쑗 an enormous hole 쑗 a useful guidebook 쑗 She’s bought a new car. 쑗 I want a cup of tea. 쑗 We had to wait an hour for the bus. 2. for each or to each 쑗 Apples cost 50p a kilo. 쑗 The car was travelling at 50 kilometres an hour. 쑗 He earns £100 a day. (NOTE: an is used before words beginning with a, e, i, o, u and with h if the h is not pronounced: an apple or an hour. a is used before words beginning with all other letters and also before u where u is pronounced /ju /: a useful guidebook) A&E abbr accident and emergency aback /ə bk/ adv 왍 taken aback sur- prised and shocked by something unpleasant She was somewhat taken aback when he told her there was no train that evening. abacus / bəkəs/ noun an object used for counting, consisting of a frame with balls which can be moved on bars ③ abandon /ə bndən/ verb 1. to leave someone or something without help 쑗 The crew abandoned the sinking boat. Synonym desert 2. to give up or stop doing something 쑗 The company has decided to abandon the project. 쑗 We abandoned the idea of setting up a London office. abandoned /ə bndənd/ adj no longer used or lived in abandonment /ə bndənmənt/ noun 1. the act or process of giving someone or something up 2. the act or process of leaving someone or something without help. Synonym desertion abashed /ə bʃt/ adj ashamed or embarrassed abate /ə bet/ verb to become less strong or forceful (formal ). Synonym decrease abattoir / bətwɑ / noun a place where animals are killed for meat. Synonym 쑗 . slaughterhouse abbey / bi/ noun 1. a place where a community of Christian monks or nuns live 2. a large church 쑗 Westminister Abbey abbreviate /ə bri viet/ verb 1. to shorten a word by leaving out some of the letters 2. to shorten a piece of writing by leaving out part of it. Synonym cut abbreviated /ə bri vietd/ adj shortened by having something left out abbreviation /əbri vi eʃ(ə)n/ noun a shortened form of a word. Compare acronym ABC /e bi si / noun the alphabet (NOTE: The name comes from the first letters of the Roman alphabet.) 왍 it’s as easy as ABC it’s very easy abdicate / bdket/ verb to give up the position as king or queen of a country abdication /bd keʃ(ə)n/ noun the act of giving up the position of king or queen of a country abdomen / bdəmən/ noun the space in the front part of your body, containing the stomach and other organs abdominal /b dɒmn(ə)l/ adj referring to the abdomen abduct /b dkt/ verb to take someone away, usually by force. Synonym kidnap abduction /b dkʃən/ noun the act of taking someone away, usually by force. Synonym kidnap aberrant / berənt/ adj not usual or as expected (formal ). Synonym abnormal. Antonym normal aberration /bə reʃ(ə)n/ noun an action or thing which is not usual or expected. Synonym abnormality abet /ə bet/ verb to encourage or help someone to do something wrong or illegal (formal ) 쒁 aid (NOTE: abetting – abetted) abhorrence /əb hɒrəns/ noun a feeling of hatred or horror (formal ) abhorrent /əb hɒrənt/ adj horrible or disgusting (formal ) abide /ə bad/ verb 왍 to abide by to follow rules or customs 쑗 You must abide by the rules of the game. 쑗 We have to abide by the decision of the referee. 왍 to abide by a promise to keep a promise abiding /ə badŋ/ adj lasting a long time (formal ). Synonym enduring. Antonym . . . . . transient ability 2 ability /ə blti/ noun 1. the force or capacity to do something 쑗 She has many abilities but singing isn’t one of them. (NOTE: The plural in this meaning is abilities.) 왍 I’ll do it to the best of my ability I’ll do it as well as I can 2. the fact of being clever 쑗 a person of great or outstanding ability abject / bdekt/ adj (formal ) 1. very bad 쑗 abject poverty 2. making you feel ashamed 쑗 an abject apology 쑗 abject terror ablaze /ə blez/ adv 1. on fire 쑗 Thirty hectares of trees were ablaze. 2. shining brightly 쑗 At midnight the house was still ablaze with lights. ① able / eb(ə)l/ adj 1. (NOTE: In this sense, able is only used with to and a verb.) 왍 to be able to do something to be capable of something or have the chance to do something 쑗 They weren’t able to find the house. 왍 will you be able to come to the meeting? can you come to the meeting? 2. being strong enough or clever enough to do something 쑗 He’s a very able general. able-bodied /eb(ə)l bɒdid/ adj fit and healthy ably / ebli/ adv in a very competent or efficient way. Synonym capably abnormal /b nɔ m(ə)l/ adj not normal. Synonym irregular. Antonym normal abnormality /bnɔ mlti/ noun 1. the state of being abnormal 2. something which is abnormal (NOTE: The plural is abnormali① . ties.) abnormally /b nɔ məli/ adv in a way which is different from normal aboard /ə bɔ d/ adv, prep on a ship or ve- hicle 쑗 The passengers went aboard the ‘Queen Elizabeth’ at 10 p.m. 쑗 When the ship docked, customs officers came aboard to inspect the cargo. 왍 all aboard! everyone get on, please! abode /ə bəυd/ noun the place where someone lives (literary) Synonym home 왍 of no fixed abode with no permanent address (formal ) abolish /ə bɒlʃ/ verb to get rid of something such as a law or right abolition /bə lʃ(ə)n/ noun the act of abolishing something such as a law or right. Synonym elimination abominable /ə bɒmnəb(ə)l/ adj very bad. Synonym dreadful abominably /ə bɒmnəbli/ adv in a horrible way Aboriginal /bə rdən(ə)l/ adj referring to Aborigines 쐽 noun same as Aborigine Aborigine /bə rdni/ noun an Australian who is a member of the peoples who lived in Australia before Europeans arrived. Also called Aboriginal . abrasive abort /ə bɔ t/ verb 1. to stop something tak- ing place 2. to perform an abortion on a foetus 3. (of a woman) to have an abortion or miscarriage abortion /ə bɔ ʃ(ə)n/ noun the ending of a woman’s pregnancy before a live infant can be born abortive /ə bɔ tv/ adj attempted without success. Synonym unsuccessful. Antonym successful abound /ə baυnd/ verb 왍 to abound in or with to be full of something (formal ) 쑗 The forests abound in game. ① about /ə baυt/ prep 1. referring to something 쑗 He told me all about his operation. 쑗 What do you want to speak to the doctor about? 2. 왍 to be about to do something to be going to do something very soon 쑗 We were about to go home when you arrived. 3. approximately 쑗 I’ve been waiting for about four hours. 쑗 She’s only about fifteen years old. 왍 how about, what about what do you think about (informal ) 쑗 We can’t find a new chairperson for the club – what about Sarah? 왍 how about a cup of tea? would you like a cup of tea? 왍 while you’re about it at the same time as the thing you are doing 쑗 While you’re about it, can you post this letter? 쐽 adv in various places 쑗 There were papers lying about on the floor. 쑗 There is a lot of flu about during the winter months. about-turn /əbaυt t" n/, about-face /əbaυt fes/ noun 1. an order to soldiers to turn to face in the opposite direction 2. an act of changing your plans or policy to the opposite of what you did before. Synonym U-turn ① above /ə bv/ prep 1. higher than 쑗 The plane was flying above the clouds. 쑗 The temperature in the street was above 30 degrees. 쑗 At prices above £2.00, nobody will buy it. 2. older than 쑗 If you are above 18, you have to pay the full fare. 3. louder than 쑗 I couldn’t hear the telephone above the noise of the drills. 4. 왍 they’re living above their means they’re living more extravagantly than they can afford 쐽 adv earlier on in a book or higher up on a page 쑗 See the section on computers on page 25 above. 쐽 noun 왍 the above the people mentioned earlier in a text 쑗 All the above have passed the test. above board /əbv bɔ d/ adj openly honest and legal abrasion /ə bre(ə)n/ noun 1. the action of rubbing off the surface of something 2. an area of skin damaged by rubbing against something hard 쑗 There were cuts and abrasions all over her legs. abrasive /ə bresv/ adj 1. rude and impatient in dealing with people 2. which rubs away a surface 쐽 noun a substance which rubs away a surface 쑗 Avoid using abrasives to clean this surface. . . abreast 3 abreast /ə brest/ adv 1. side by side 2. 왍 to keep abreast of something to keep up to date with something 쑗 She wants to keep abreast of the latest developments in cancer therapy. abridge /ə brd/ verb to shorten a text such as a book or play abridged /ə brdd/ adj shortened by removing parts of a text abridgement /ə brdmənt/ noun a shortened form of a text such as a book or play ② abroad /ə brɔ d/ adv in or to another country 쑗 They’ve gone abroad on holiday. 쑗 Holidays abroad are more and more popular. Synonym overseas abrupt /ə brpt/ adj 1. sudden 2. using few words and not being very polite abruptly /ə brptli/ adv 1. suddenly, without giving any warning 2. briefly and impolitely abruptness /ə brptnəs/ noun 1. the fact of happening suddenly 2. the fact of using few words and not being very polite abscess / bses/ noun a collection of pus in the body. Synonym boil (NOTE: The plural is abscesses.) abscond /əb skɒnd/ verb 1. to leave somewhere suddenly and secretly (formal ) 2. to escape from prison (formal ) abseil / bsel/ verb to come down a cliff . . or wall using a fixed rope wound around your body ② absence / bsəns/ noun 1. the fact of being away from a place 쑗 She did not explain her absence from the meeting. 쑗 The former president was sentenced in his absence. 왍 in the absence of because someone is not there 쑗 In the absence of the chairman, his deputy took the chair. 2. because of a lack of something 쑗 In the absence of any town maps we had to ask our way. ③ absent adj / bsənt/ not there 쐽 verb /b sent/ 왍 to absent yourself from to stay away from a class or meeting deliberately (formal ) absentee /bsən ti / noun a person who is not there absenteeism /bs(ə)n ti z(ə)m/ noun the act or fact of deliberately staying away from work absentee landlord /bs(ə)nti lndlɔ d/ noun an owner of a property who lives a long way away and uses other people to deal with those who live in or use it absent-minded /bs(ə)nt mandd/ adj often forgetting things. Synonym forgetful ② absolute / bsəlu t/ adj complete or total ① absolutely / bsəlu tli/ adv 1. completely or totally 쑗 I am absolutely sure I left . absurdity the keys in my coat pocket. 2. yes, of course Did you build it yourself? – Absolutely! absolute majority /bsəlu t mə dɒrti/ noun a majority over all the others counted together absolve /əb zɒlv/ verb to remove blame for a sin from someone. Synonym pardon ③ absorb verb /əb zɔ b/ 1. to take in something such as a liquid 쑗 The water should be absorbed by the paper. 쑗 Salt absorbs moisture from the air. 2. to make something part of something larger 쑗 When we took over the company we absorbed most of their staff. 3. to learn or accept something new 쑗 When I started my new job there was a lot of information to absorb. 4. to reduce a shock 쑗 The car’s springs are supposed to absorb any shock from the road surface. 쐽 adj 왍 absorbed in totally interested in 쑗 He was so absorbed in his newspaper that he didn’t notice that the toast had burnt. absorbent /əb zɔ bənt/ adj which can absorb something such as a liquid. Synonym 쑗 porous absorbing /əb zɔ bŋ/ adj very interesting. Synonym fascinating. Antonym boring absorption /əb zɔ pʃən/ noun 1. the act of absorbing something or of being absorbed 2. the fact of being very interested in something abstain /əb sten/ verb 1. deliberately not to do something (NOTE: You abstain from doing something.) 2. not to vote on a matter abstemious /əb sti miəs/ adj not drinking or eating too much. Antonym self-indulgent abstention /əb stenʃən/ noun 1. a person who deliberately does not vote on a matter 2. the act or fact of deliberately not voting on a matter abstinence / bstnəns/ noun the act or fact of deliberately not doing something, especially not drinking alcohol abstract / bstrkt/ adj 1. which exists only in the mind rather then in the physical world 2. (of art) which does not copy things exactly as they appear 쐽 noun 1. something which exists in the mind only 왍 in the abstract in a general way 2. an abstract painting 쑗 He started by painting abstracts and then turned to portraits. 3. a short form of a report or document 쑗 to make an abstract of a report abstract noun /bstrkt naυn/ noun a noun that refers to an idea or quality, e.g. ‘truth’ abstruse /b stru s/ adj difficult to understand. Synonym obscure absurd /əb s" d/ adj ridiculous absurdity /əb s" dti/ noun the fact of being absurd abundance abundance /ə bndəns/ noun a large quantity. Synonym profusion. Antonym scarcity 왍 in abundance in large quantities (formal ) 쑗 The fridge was full, so we had food and drink in abundance. abundant /ə bndənt/ adj existing in large quantities. Synonym plentiful. Antonym . scarce abundantly /ə bndənt(ə)li/ adv 1. to a very large degree 2. in large or more than large enough quantities ② abuse /ə bju s/; /ə bju z/ noun 1. a bad use 쑗 The minister’s action is an abuse of power. 2. rude words 쑗 The people being arrested shouted abuse at the police. 3. very bad treatment 쑗 sexual abuse of children 쑗 She suffered physical abuse in prison. (NOTE: [all noun senses] no plural) 쐽 verb 1. to make the wrong use of something 쑗 He abused his position as finance director. 왍 he abused my confidence he took advantage of my trust in him 2. to treat someone very badly, usually sexually 쑗 As a child, she was abused by her uncle. 3. to say rude things about someone 쑗 The crowd sang songs abusing the president’s wife. abusive /ə bju sv/ adj 1. rude and insulting 쑗 an abusive letter 쑗 He had too much to drink and became abusive. 2. treating someone in a violent or cruel way, or referring to a violent and cruel situation 쑗 an abusive father 쑗 an abusive relationship abysmal /ə bzm(ə)l/ adj extremely bad. Synonym terrible. Antonym superb abysmally /ə bzməli/ adv extremely badly abyss /ə bs/ noun 1. a deep hole (NOTE: The plural is abysses.) 2. a horrible or frightening situation (NOTE: no plural) AC abbr alternating current ② academic /kə demk/ adj 1. referring to study at a university 쑗 Members of the academic staff received a letter from the principal. 2. only in theory, not in practice 쑗 It is only of academic interest. 쐽 noun a university teacher 쑗 All her friends are academics. academically /kə demkli/ adv with regard to study in general, or to teaching at a university academic year /kədemk jə/ noun a period which starts in September and finishes in August academy /ə kdəmi/ noun 1. a college where specialised subjects are taught 2. a secondary school in Scotland that chooses its pupils on academic ability 3. a private society for the study of art or science accelerate /ək seləret/ verb 1. to go faster 2. to make something go faster. Antonym decelerate 4 accessory acceleration /əkselə reʃ(ə)n/ noun 1. the ability to go at a faster speed 2. the action of going at a faster speed ③ accelerator /ək seləretə/ noun a pedal which makes a car go faster accent / ksənt/ noun 1. a particular way of pronouncing 쑗 He speaks with an American accent. 2. stress in speaking 쑗 In the word ‘haberdashery’ the accent is on the first syllable. 3. a mark over a letter indicating a particular way of pronouncing it 쑗 ‘Résumé’ has two accents. 4. emphasis 쑗 The accent is on youth unemployment. accentuate /k sentʃuet/ verb to put emphasis on something. Synonym emphasise. Antonym play down ① accept /ək sept/ verb 1. to take and keep a present 쑗 We hope you will accept this little gift. 2. to say ‘yes’ or to agree to something 쑗 She accepted the offer of a job in Australia. 쑗 I invited her to come with us and she accepted. 3. to agree to handle something 쑗 ‘All major credit cards accepted.’ 쑗 Do you accept traveller’s cheques? (NOTE: Do not confuse with except.) ③ acceptable /ək septəb(ə)l/ adj easily accepted 쑗 A small gift of flowers would be very acceptable. 쑗 The offer is not acceptable to the vendor. ③ acceptance /ək septəns/ noun 1. the act of taking something which is offered 2. the act or fact of agreeing to do something ③ accepted /ək septd/ adj which is taken as correct by most people. Synonym conventional. Antonym unconventional ① access / kses/ noun 1. a way of getting to a place 쑗 The concert hall has access for wheelchairs. 쑗 At present there is no access to the site. 2. 왍 to have (easy) access to to be able to get to a place or obtain something 쑗 The company has access to substantial funds. 쐽 verb to get information from a computer 쑗 She tried to access the address list. Synonym get into access course / kses kɔ s/ noun a course of study d...
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