2nd exam study guide- readings

2nd exam study guide- readings - Comm 203- 2nd Midterm...

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Comm 203- 2 nd Midterm Review- Readings Smith et al. (1998)- NTVS Four foundations of Study - Foundation 1: Television violence contributes to harmful effects on viewers o Can have a number of adverse effects on children and even on adults - Foundation 2: Three types of harmful effects can occur from viewing televised violence o Learning aggressive attitudes and behaviors Children can learn aggressive behavior and it can last into adulthood o Desensitization to violence o Increased fear of being victimized by violence Can cause exaggerated fear of being attacked - Foundation 3: Not all violence poses the same degree of risk of these harmful effects o Not all violent portrays are problematic o Greatest risk for the learning of aggression Attractive perp, morally justified, repeated violence that is realistic and includes conventional weapon, rewarded or unpunished violence, no visible harm or pain to victim, humorous context o Greatest risk for desensitization Repeated or extensive violent behavior Humorous context o Greatest risk for audience fear Violence aimed at attractive victim, undeserved/unjustified violence, violence that is repeated or realistic, violence that goes unpunished - Foundation 4: not all viewers are affected by violence the same way o Children under 7 are still developing their cognitive skills, therefore they interpret messages differently Can’t tell fantasy from reality, can’t link scenes Key aspects of Definition - involvement of animate beings - a clear intent to harm - harm that is physical in nature as opposed to psychological or emotional Sample - 9 months a year for 3 years (October 1994 to June 1997) - 23 television channels to create a composite week - 6 am to 11pm (17 hours a day across seven days of the week) - 119 hours per channel - Didn’t evaluate sports or news (ESPN and CNN were excluded) - Five categories: broadcast networks, independent broadcasters, public broadcast, basic cable, and premium cable - 10,000 hours over 3-year period Violent Incident, Scene, Program
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- Violent incident- interaction between a perpetrator and a victim - Violent Scene- instance of ongoing, uninterrupted violence - Violent Program- entire program Findings - Glamorized violence o good characters are frequently the perpetrators of violence, and rarely do they show remorse or experience negative repercussions for violence 40% of violent incidents over 3 years are initiated by characters who possess qualities that make them attractive role models o Often condoned 1/3 of violent programs feature bad character who are never punished - Sanitized Violence o ½ the violent incidents on tv show no harm or pain to the victim o Less than 20% of the violent programs portray long-term damage to the victim’s family, friends, or community - Trivialized violence o More than half of the violent incidents feature physical aggression that would be lethal or incapacitating if it were to occur in real life o Mostly undermined by humor
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This note was uploaded on 03/22/2008 for the course COMM 203 taught by Professor Smith during the Fall '06 term at USC.

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2nd exam study guide- readings - Comm 203- 2nd Midterm...

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