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9.1 Measuring IntelligenceIntelligence and Perception: Galton’s Anthropometric Approach Galton believed that since we learn about the world through our senses, people with superior sensory abilities would be able to learn more about it. Thus, he argued that sensory ability should be an indicator of a person’s intelligenceAnthropometrics: the measurement of people referred to methods of measuring physical and mental variation in humans Galton’s test was abandoned because the senses had little to no correlation to intelligenceIntelligence and Thinking: The Stanford-Binet TestIntelligence: the ability to think, understand, reason, and adapt to or overcome obstacles Mental age: the average intellectual ability score for children of a specific ageStanford-Binet test: a test intended to measure innate (inborn; natural) levels of intelligenceDifference between mental age and Stanford-Binet testoMental age: child’s current abilityoStanford-Binet test: innate capacity Intelligence Quotient (IQ): calculated by taking a person’s mental age, dividing it by his chronological age, and then multiplying it by 100Deviation IQ was used to calculate the intelligence for adultsoDeviation IQ: comparing the person’s test score with the average score for people of the same ageoAdvantage: avoids the problem of IQ scores that consistently decline with age because scores are calculated relative to others of the same ageThe Wechsler Adult Intelligence ScaleWechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS): the most common intelligence test in use today for adolescents and adults WIAS provides a single IQ score for each test taker – the Full Scale IQ - but also breaks intelligence into General Ability Index (GAI) and Cognitive Proficiency Index (CPI)Raven’s Progressive Matrices
Raven’s progressive matrices: an intelligence test that is based on pictures, not words, thus, making it relatively unaffected by language or cultural background IQ Testing and Eugenics Movement Eugenics: “good genes”Galton’s views influenced Lewis Terman, who promoted an explicitly eugenic philosophy oHe argued for the superiority of his own “race” and in the interest of “improving” society, believed that his IQ tests provided a strong empirical justification for eugenic practices Terman concluded that people from non-Western and non-White ethnicities generally had lower IQs, and therefore argued that it was appropriate (even desirable) to stream them into less challenging academic pursuits and jobs of lower status The Race and IQ Controversy There is a clear and reliable hierarchy of IQ scores across different ethnic groupsMeritocracy: people who had the most ability and worked the hardest would receive the most wealth, power, and statusHerrnstien and Murray concludes: the differences in IQ scores between ethnic groups means that there are inherent, genetic differences in intelligence between the groups