NOTE 1.docx - BIOPSYCHOSOCIAL Historical perspective on...

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BIOPSYCHOSOCIAL Historical perspective on illness, causes, and cures - Beliefs about the cause of illness inform the methods used to cure it Illness through history (Bronze age- Evil spirits): Trepanation Illness through history (Middle ages- Gods punishment): Prayer and Torture Illness through history (Renaissance- Organ & cell pathology): Looking for a cause: - Autopsy: - Microscope: And yank it out! Illness through history (Mid 1700’s- Capillary tension): Bloodletting Illness through history (1800’s- Comfort): Listen, comfort, presence - “If all the drugs could be sunk to the bottom of the sea, it would be better for mankind- and all the worse for the fishes”—Oliver Wendell Holmes, 1860 Illness through history (1900’s- Biomedical model): Penicillin: Biomedical model of illness - An illness has a biomedical cause. - Illness is based on an organ not functioning right or bio-chemicals in the body being out of balance. - An illness can be cured or prevented with drugs if we just find the right drugs. - Body is separate from mind. Rates of death Deaths from various diseases 1900-2010 Smallpox - Killed > 300 million people in 20 th century - More than all wars, genocides, terrorist acts, political famines COMBINED
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- Has been eradicated with vaccines - Remains no cure- it can only be prevented Viktor Zhdanov best person in the history of mankind? - Deputy minister of health for Soviet Union in 1958 o Virologist but did not invent the vaccine o It was invented by Edward Jenner in 1796- 1 st vaccine ever ! - Argued to the WHO it was possible to eradicate smallpox o Campaign began in 1966 o Last case in 1977 o Declared officially eradicated in 1979 Evaluation of the biomedical model - Successes: Acute illnesses o Infectious disease: (Tuberculosis, Pneumonia, Tetanus, Typhus, Smallpox, Malaria, Polio) - Controlled or eliminated by prevention and treatment that is purely biomedical o Antibiotics and vaccines Vaccines - How they work? o Introduce a little bit of toxin from the disease into your body o Immune system creates antibodies to fight it of o Incredibly efective…. If you use them - Vaccine backlash o You don’t worry about the horrible diseases you don’t see o Tiny risks loom very large o 40% of parents refuse or delay vaccines kids are supposed to get in their first year of life - Why the backlash? o People think vaccines cause autism o 1 in 5 American people think vaccines cause autism Vaccines do NOT cause autism. - THE FACTS o Only 1 study ever claimed even remote evidence for this relationship o Its author was paid to write the article o The person paying the author was suing a vaccine manufacturer o A meta- analysis of studies including over 1.2 million children showed no relationship between autism and: Vaccination in general MMR vaccination in particular Exposure to thimerosal Exposure to mercury - Why do people still think they do?
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