2.7 2.12 2.14 - POLICE * Three major aspects of American...

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POLICE * Three major aspects of American policing evolved from the English legal tradition: o Fragmented Organization o Limited Authority o Local Control Metropolitan Police Act * Industrial Revolution takes place and crime dramatically increases * In 1829, the Metropolitan Police Act (MPA) is passes in Parliament while Sir Robert Peel is Home Secretary o ( Bobbies ) * The MPA creates the first organized police force of over Mandates of the MPA * Prevent Crime without using repressive force * Maintain public order by nonviolent means * Reduce conflict between the public and police * Demonstrate efficiency through the absence of crime and disorder American Colonial Era of Policing * Colonist drew on English roots * Watch System * Slave patrols developed as organized forces in the South o Proactive in nature o Considered by some to be the first modern police forces in the U.S. The Political Era: 1840-1920 * Development of police agencies prompted by mob violence * Gin became a major substance abuse problem * Police were selected because of politics, not competence * Hallmarks were protecting the incumbent political powers, protecting private property and keeping immigrants under control The Professional Model Era: 1920-1970 * Technological advancements advance police competencies Local state, and federal crime commissions * Public concern about police corruption, which led to: o Hiring based on ability o Departments free from political control o Minimizing political influence o Administrative efficiency o Impartial, uniform enforcement of law Six Elements of Professional Policing * Be free of political influence * Members should be well-trained, disciplined and tightly organized * Laws should be equally enforced * Forces should use new technology * Personnel procedures should be based on merit * The main task of policing is fighting crime Research Studies and Police Work * During the professional era, research was completed that indicated: o Increasing the number of patrol officers in a neighborhood had little effect on the crime rate o Rapid response to calls for service did not greatly increase arrest rates o Improving the percentage of crimes solved is difficult The Community Policing Era: 1970-Present * Riots and brutality claims led to an examination of traditional police practices and role * Local governments faced fiscal constraints and forced budget cutbacks in policing
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* Federal assistance to local and state agencies to fight the war on crime o Police unions grew o Concepts of community and problem oriented policing emerged o Emphasis on good police-community relationships Principles of Community Oriented Policing * Problem solving is best done at the neighborhood level * Locally situated police working with residents make a good problem-
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This note was uploaded on 03/22/2008 for the course CJ 110 taught by Professor Maxwell during the Spring '08 term at Michigan State University.

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2.7 2.12 2.14 - POLICE * Three major aspects of American...

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