Oncology Nursing.docx - Oncology Nursing Cancer a multisystem stressor 200 disease types characterized by uncontrolled cell growth covers all age groups

Oncology Nursing.docx - Oncology Nursing Cancer a...

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Oncology NursingCancer- a multisystem stressor- 200 disease types characterized by uncontrolled cell growth- covers all age groups- certain aspects are similar no matter what type- 2nd cause of death in US- number 1 is heart diseasePathophysiology- a process that begins when an abnormal cell is created by the geneticmutation of a cell's DNA- the cells now take on characteristics of “cancer cells” and behave differently from normal cellsNurse's Role: In What Settings?- identify at risk patients- not all cancer patients have pain- a lot of people have shortness of breath- very hard to manage- many patients that are dying are very often undermedicated- identify goals- collaborate- knowledge, current research and statistics2 CharacteristicsProliferation- increased cell growth- cancer cells don’t always multiply rapidly but to increase and spread without cell “boundaries”- essentially the cells are running amok and have no boundaries- metastasis:spread of cancer cells from the original tumor site to distant sites- the main purpose of chemotherapy is to prevent metastasis by microscopic spreadDifferentiation- cells should grow into the mature type if not they remain like immature or fetal cells- undifferentiated means UNLIKE the mature cell- premalignant or malignant- malignant;having cells or processes that are characteristic of cancer- benign:not cancerous; benign tumors may grow but are unable to spread to other organs or body parts Risk Factors for Mutation: Potential Causes- environmental- Carcinogens;chemicals, physical factors and other agents that cause cancer- tobacco, exposure to occupational chemicals- drugs: pesticides- asbestos, benzene- Viruses: epstein-barr, HPV, h. Pylori(stomach ulcers)- radiation: sun, treatment, radon, nuclear- diet: increase in animal protein1
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- alcohol, cured foods- immune response: compromised immune systems are more susceptible to cancers- hormones: increased incidence of breast cancer with estrogen therapy- genetics: a part in development- chromosome/genes (BRCA 1 & 2)Immune System Response- immune system should recognize “self” from “nonself” - normally it does- cancer cells can have tumor associated antigens on their cell surfaces also known as TAAs- also known as tumor-specific antigens (TSA):protein on the membrane of cancer cells that distinguishes the malignant cell from a benign cell of the same tissue type- cytotoxic B lymphocytes and Killer T cells use these TSA’s to identify and kill abnormal cells- lymphokines and tumor necrosis factors = cell death- patients with AIDS, on immunosuppressants or anti-rejection drugs are at a much higher risk of cancerPrevention and Education- 7 Warning Signs- Change in bowel/bladder- Asore that does not heal- Unusual Bleeding- Thickening or Lump- Indigestion- Obvious change in wart- Nagging cough- Screenings- breast: mammogram over 40 yrs - annually- colon: over 50: colonoscopy every 10 year and occult blood stool sample every year- bowel cancer is very slow growing - virtual colonography q 5 year
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