Anthro 103 Final.docx - 1 Evaluate and justify...

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1. Evaluate and justify archaeological field techniques that would be best used when trying to answer the following research question. In a foraging society, what were the main foods that were eaten? The main foods that were eaten in foraging society involved hunting, gathering of plant foods and fishing but depended on the seasonal resources. A strategic foraging theory suggests that foraging societies used a method to gather and consume ask much energy as possible while losing as little energy as possible. In this case energy is gained by the consumption of food. Like that discovered on the Upper Mangrove Creek (18-19 th Centuries), evidence suggests the society practiced in strategic foraging by the delegation of hunter-gather responsibilities. Typically, men hunted for protein (meats by way of animals) and women gathered (plant foods, berries, and greens). Robert G. Reynolds suggests the production pattern improves the efficiency of collecting and consumption foods along with a survival tactic. (Renfrew, Chapter 13) 2. How do archaeologists attempt to recognize the existence of ranking in the archaeological record? Give specific examples of different characteristics that assist in determining whether or not an ancient society was ranked. Archaeologists attempt to recognize the existence of ranking in the archaeological record by way of studying individual and communal burials. Studying the physical remains not only helps determine the age and sex but the class, status or achievements during life. Though burials are reflective on the living decedents or community's symbolism of importance to the desist, often the burials consist of achievements, wealth, beliefs and personality. High status ranking based on achievements one has made in his/her lifetime can be reflected in many ways such as painting, battle, chiefdoms, pyramids of Egypt. However, Indus civilization of Pakistan and India shows little ranking for many have been buried in public burial sites. Archaeologists must study the burial practices to notice small ranking details. (Renfrew, Chapter 5) 3. Why is it important to publish the results of archaeological survey, excavation and post- excavation analyses? The importance in publishing the results of archaeological survey, excavation and post- excavation analyses is to carefully document the excavated site, collect data (artifacts or context) and study the past. The information is later used to analyze and interpreted.
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