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Unformatted text preview: DUMBARTON OAKS STUDIES XXXV BYZANTINE MONASTIC FOUNDATION DOCUMENTS Volume 1 BYZANTINE MONASTIC FOUNDATION DOCUMENTS A Complete Translation of the Surviving Founders’ Typika and Testaments Volume 1 Edited by John Thomas and Angela Constantinides Hero with the assistance of Giles Constable Translated by Robert Allison Anastasius Bandy George Dennis Gianfranco Fiaccadori Catia Galatariotou Ilija Iliev Patricia Karlin-Hayter Robert Jordan Leslie S. B. MacCoull Timothy Miller Joseph Munitiz Stephen Reinert Nancy Patterson Sevcenko Alice-Mary Talbot John Thomas with an administrative commentary by John Thomas Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection Washington, D.C. Copyright © 2000 by Dumbarton Oaks Trustees for Harvard University All rights reserved Printed in the United States of America Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Byzantine monastic foundation documents: a complete translation of the surviving founders’ typika and testaments / edited by John Thomas and Angela Constantinides Hero; with the assistance of Giles Constable; translated by Robert Allison. . .[et al.] ; with an administrative commentary by John Thomas. p. cm. (—Dumbarton Oaks studies ; 35) Includes bibliographical references. ISBN 0-88402-232-3 (hc.)—ISBN 0-88402-289-7 (pbk.) 1. Monasticism and religious orders, Orthodox Eastern—Byzantine Empire— History—Sources. 2. Monasteries, Orthodox Eastern—Byzantine Empire—History— Sources. 3. Byzantine Empire—Church history—Sources. I. Thomas, John, 1951– . II. Hero, Angela Constantinides, 1926– . III. Constable, Giles. BX385.B9B95 1998 255' .819—DC21 98-19254 CIP CONTENTS Contents Volume 1 Preface xi Acknowledgments xxxix Abbreviations xliii Introduction 1 Maps (Sites of monasteries) follows page 20 Early Monastic Rules 21 CHAPTER ONE: Traditional Private Religious Foundations Introduction 43 Seventh Century 1. Apa Abraham: Testament of Apa Abraham, Bishop of Hermonthis, for the Monastery of St. Phoibammon near Thebes, Egypt (trans. Leslie S. B. MacCoull) 51 Eighth Century 2. Pantelleria: Typikon of John for the Monastery of St. John the Forerunner on Pantelleria (trans. Gianfranco Fiaccadori) 59 Ninth Century 3. Theodore Studites: Testament of Theodore the Studite for the Monastery of St. John Stoudios in Constantinople (trans. Timothy Miller) 67 4. Stoudios: Rule of the Monastery of St. John Stoudios in Constantinople (trans. Timothy Miller) 84 Tenth Century 5. Euthymios: Testament of Euthymios for the Monasteries of Psamathia and Ta Agathou (trans. Patricia Karlin-Hayter) 120 6. Rila: Testament of John of Rila (trans. Ilija Iliev) 125 7. Latros: Testament of Paul the Younger for the Monastery of the Mother of God tou Stylou on Mount Latros (trans. Gianfranco Fiaccadori) 135 Eleventh Century 8. John Xenos: Testament of John Xenos for the Monastery of the Mother of God Antiphonetria of Myriokephala on Crete (trans. Gianfranco Fiaccadori) 143 9. Galesios: Testament of Lazarus of Mount Galesios (trans. Patricia Karlin-Hayter) 148 [v] CONTENTS 10. Eleousa: Rule of Manuel, Bishop of Stroumitza, for the Monastery of the Mother of God Eleousa (trans. Anastasius Bandy) 167 CHAPTER TWO: Athonite Monasteries Introduction 193 Tenth Century 11. Ath. Rule: Rule of Athanasios the Athonite for the Lavra Monastery (trans. George Dennis) 205 12. Tzimiskes: Typikon of Emperor John Tzimiskes (trans. George Dennis) 232 13. Ath. Typikon: Typikon of Athanasios the Athonite for the Lavra Monastery (trans. George Dennis) 245 14. Ath. Testament: Testament of Athanasios the Athonite for the Lavra Monastery (trans. George Dennis) 271 15. Constantine IX: Typikon of Emperor Constantine IX Monomachos (trans. Timothy Miller) 281 CHAPTER THREE: The Protectorate Introduction 295 Tenth Century 16. Mount Tmolos: Typikon of Nikephoros Erotikos for the Monastery of the Mother of God and the Old Age Home called Ta Derma on Mount Tmolos (trans. John Thomas) 310 17. Nikon Metanoeite: Testament of Nikon the Metanoeite for the Church and Monastery of the Savior, the Mother of God and St. Kyriake in Lakedaimon (trans. Anastasius Bandy) 313 Eleventh Century 18. Nea Gephyra: Testament of Nikodemos for the Monastery of Nea Gephyra near Lakedaimon (trans. Stephen Reinert) 323 19. Attaleiates: Rule of Michael Attaleiates for his Almshouse in Rhaidestos and for the Monastery of Christ Panoiktirmon in Constantinople (trans. Alice-Mary Talbot) 326 20. Black Mountain: Regulations of Nikon of the Black Mountain (trans. Robert Allison) 377 Twelfth Century 21. Roidion: Typikon of Nikon of the Black Mountain for the Monastery and Hospice of the Mother of God tou Roidiou (trans. Robert Allison) [ vi ] 425 CONTENTS Volume 2 CHAPTER FOUR: Early Reform Monasteries of the Eleventh Century Introduction 441 22. Evergetis: Typikon of Timothy for the Monastery of the Mother of God Evergetis (trans. Robert Jordan) 454 23. Pakourianos: Typikon of Gregory Pakourianos for the Monastery of the Mother of God Petritzonitissa in Backovo (trans. Robert Jordan) 507 24. Christodoulos: Rule, Testament and Codicil of Christodoulos for the Monastery of St. John the Theologian on Patmos (trans. Patricia Karlin-Hayter) 564 CHAPTER FIVE: Imperial and Royal Monasteries of the Twelfth Century Introduction 607 25. Fragala: Testaments of Gregory for the Monastery of St. Philip of Fragala in Sicily (trans. Patricia Karlin-Hayter and Timothy Miller) 621 26. Luke of Messina: Typikon of Luke for the Monastery of Christ Savior (San Salvatore) in Messina (trans. Timothy Miller) 637 27. Kecharitomene: Typikon of Empress Irene Doukaina Komnene for the Convent of the Mother of God Kecharitomene in Constantinople (trans. Robert Jordan) 649 28. Pantokrator: Typikon of Emperor John II Komnenos for the Monastery of Christ Pantokrator in Constantinople (trans. Robert Jordan) 725 29. Kosmosoteira: Typikon of the Sebastokrator Isaac Komnenos for the Monastery of the Mother of God Kosmosoteira near Bera (trans. Nancy Patterson Sevcenko) 782 Volume 3 CHAPTER SIX: Early Reform Monasteries of the Twelfth Century Introduction 859 30. Phoberos: Rule of John for the Monastery of St. John the Forerunner of Phoberos (trans. Robert Jordan) 872 31. Areia: Memorandum and Typikon of Leo, Bishop of Nauplia, for the Monastery of the Mother of God in Areia (trans. Alice-Mary Talbot) 954 32. Mamas: Typikon of Athanasios Philanthropenos for the Monastery of St. Mamas in Constantinople (trans. Anastasius Bandy) 973 33. Heliou Bomon: Typikon of Nikephoros Mystikos for the Monastery of the Mother of God ton Heliou Bomon or Elegmon (trans. Anastasius Bandy) 1042 CHAPTER SEVEN: Independent and Self-Governing Monasteries of the Thirteenth Century Introduction 1093 [ vii ] CONTENTS 34. Machairas: Rule of Neilos, Bishop of Tamasia, for the Monastery of the Mother of God of Machairas in Cyprus (trans. Anastasius Bandy) 1107 35. Skoteine [Boreine]: Testament of Maximos for the Monastery of the Mother of God at Skoteine near Philadelphia (trans. George Dennis) 1176 36. Blemmydes: Typikon of Nikephoros Blemmydes for the Monastery of the Lord Christ-Who-Is at Ematha near Ephesos (trans. Joseph Munitiz) 1196 37. Auxentios: Typikon of Michael VIII Palaiologos for the Monastery of the Archangel Michael on Mount Auxentios near Chalcedon (trans. George Dennis) 1207 38. Kellibara I: Typikon of Michael VIII Palaiologos for the Monastery of St. Demetrios 1237 of the Palaiologoi-Kellibara in Constantinople (trans. George Dennis) 39. Lips: Typikon of Theodora Palaiologina for the Convent of Lips in Constantinople (trans. Alice-Mary Talbot) 1254 40. Anargyroi: Typikon of Theodora Palaiologina for the Convent of Sts. Kosmas and Damian in Constantinople (trans. Alice-Mary Talbot) 1287 Volume 4 CHAPTER EIGHT: Later Private Religious Foundations Introduction 1295 Twelfth Century 41. Docheiariou: Rule of Neophytos for the Monastery of St. Michael the Archangel of Docheiariou on Mount Athos (trans. Robert Allison) 1303 42. Sabas: Founder’s Typikon of the Sabas Monastery near Jerusalem (trans. Gianfranco Fiaccadori) 1311 43. Kasoulon: Rule of Nicholas for the Monastery of St. Nicholas of Kasoulon near Otranto (trans. Timothy Miller) 1319 44. Karyes: Typikon of Sabbas the Serbian for the Kellion of St. Sabbas at Karyes on Mount Athos (trans. George Dennis) 1331 Thirteenth Century 45. Neophytos: Testamentary Rule of Neophytos for the Hermitage of the Holy Cross near Ktima in Cyprus (trans. Catia Galatariotou) 1338 Fourteenth Century 46. Akropolites: Testament of Constantine Akropolites for the Monastery of the Resurrection (Anastasis) in Constantinople (trans. Alice-Mary Talbot) 1374 47. Philanthropos: Typikon of Irene Choumnaina Palaiologina for the Convent of Christ Philanthropos in Constantinople (trans. Alice-Mary Talbot) 1383 48. Prodromos: Testament of Neilos for the Monastery of St. John the Forerunner (Prodromos) on Mount Athos (trans. Stephen Reinert) 1389 [ viii ] CONTENTS 49. Geromeri: Testament of Neilos Erichiotes for the Monastery of the Mother of God Hodegetria in Geromeri (trans. George Dennis) 1396 50. Gerasimos: Testament of Gerasimos for the Small Monastery of St. Euthymios in Jerusalem (trans. George Dennis) 1404 51. Koutloumousi: Testaments of Chariton for the Monastery of Christ Savior of Koutloumousi on Mount Athos (trans. George Dennis) 1408 52. Choumnos: Rule and Testament of Makarios Choumnos for the Nea Mone of the Mother of God in Thessalonike (trans. Alice-Mary Talbot) 1433 53. Meteora: Canonical Rule of Athanasios the Meteorite for the Monastery of the Transfiguration (Metamorphosis) (trans. George Dennis) 1455 Fifteenth Century 54. Neilos Damilas: Testament and Typikon of Neilos Damilas for the Convent of the Mother of God Pantanassa at Baionaia on Crete (trans. Alice-Mary Talbot) 1462 CHAPTER NINE: Independent and Self-Governing Monasteries of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries Introduction 1483 Fourteenth Century 55. Athanasios I: Rule of Patriarch Athanasios I (trans. Timothy Miller) 1495 56. Kellibara II: Typikon of Andronikos II Palaiologos for the Monastery of St. Demetrios-Kellibara in Constantinople (trans. George Dennis) 1505 57. Bebaia Elpis: Typikon of Theodora Synadene for the Convent of the Mother of God Bebaia Elpis in Constantinople (trans. Alice-Mary Talbot) 1512 58. Menoikeion: Typikon of Joachim, Metropolitan of Zichna, for the Monastery 1579 of St. John the Forerunner on Mount Menoikeion near Serres (trans. Timothy Miller) Fifteenth Century 59. Manuel II: Typikon of Manuel II Palaiologos for the Monasteries of Mount Athos (trans. George Dennis) 1613 60. Charsianeites: Testament of Patriarch Matthew I for the Monastery of Charsianeites Dedicated to the Mother of God Nea Peribleptos (trans. Alice-Mary Talbot) 1625 61. Eleousa Inv.: Inventory of the Monastery of the Mother of God Eleousa in Stroumitza (trans. Anastasius Bandy, with Nancy Sevcenko) 1667 Volume 5 Glossary 1679 Appendix A: Concordance with Previous Lists 1691 Appendix B: The Regulation of Diet in the Byzantine Monastic Foundation Documents 1696 [ ix ] CONTENTS Appendix C: Topical Interrelationships of the Families of the Typika of the Byzantine Monastic Reform Movement 1717 General Bibliography 1725 Index of People and Places 1745 General Index 1851 [x] PREFACE Preface I Among the many types of sources for the history of Byzantine monasticism, none are more important than the typika, or foundation documents, collected and translated in these volumes, which will make possible for the first time a comprehensive study of religious life and institutions in the Greek East and a comparison between Greek and Latin monasticism.1 Together, the typika throw light on almost every aspect of Byzantine monastic life and its development from the eighth to the fifteenth century. Their nature is discussed by John Thomas in the introduction. They were flexible and personal documents, which differed considerably in form, length, and content. Not all of them were foundation documents in the strict sense, since they could be issued at any time in the history of an institution. Some were wills; others were reform decrees and rules; yet others were primarily liturgical in character. Each typikon was normally written for a specific monastery and its dependencies and reflected the ideas and wishes of the writer. A few were designed for several monasteries, such as the houses on Mt. Athos or in Sicily. The typikon issued by Patriarch Athanasios I in 1303–5, (55) Athanasios I, was exceptional, since it applied in theory to all the monasteries in the empire and calls to mind the claims of papal monarchy in the West. There are many resemblances among the typika, and large parts of some were virtually copied from others. The typikon of the Stoudios monastery in Constantinople, (4) Stoudios, influenced the typika of many other houses, including (22) Evergetis, which in turn formed the basis of (29) Kosmosoteira, (32) Mamas, (33) Heliou Bomon, and others. The differences between these successive variations show not only the individuality of each monastery but also the changes in Byzantine monasticism over the centuries. Each typikon needs to be studied in terms of the history and circumstances of the monastery for which it was written.2 A typikon thus combined the features that in the West were found on the one hand in foundation charters, which established the legal and economic status of a monastery and were often Note: The typika are cited by the number, in parentheses, and section, in brackets, of the translations in this edition. 1 When this project was first conceived, in 1980, I planned to contribute a running commentary from the point of view of a historian of western monasticism, but this proved impossible owing to the size of the undertaking and the inevitable repetitions, given the number of topics that are treated in more than one typikon. I therefore decided to write a preface comparing some of the more salient characteristics of eastern monasticism as reflected in the typika with monasticism in the West, leaving the examination of more detailed questions for further study. 2 According to Alice-Mary Talbot and Mark Johnson, “Monastery,” ODB, p. 1391, “The organization of each monastery varied and was prescribed by its typikon.” [ xi ] PREFACE formulaic in character,3 and on the other hand in the rules, customs, and statutes that applied to several houses and from which the personal elements found in the typika were excluded.4 There were no general monastic rules in the East, and no monastic orders in the western sense of the term.5 Honor was paid to the early monastic legislators, especially to Basil, but his so-called rules were not normative, and they differed from the typika in many respects, which are described in John Thomas’s introduction, such as with regard to manual labor, intermonastic relations, and attitudes toward women. The Apophthegmata patrum, Precepts of Pachomios, and Book of Horsiesios were also known in the Middle Ages, but they never exercised the influence of the western rules and customs. There was also considerable variety in the West, particularly during the so-called period of the Mixed Rule, from the sixth to the eighth century, when no single rule predominated and some monasteries had their own rules, but the Carolingian reform in the early ninth century in principle imposed the Rule of Benedict on all monasteries. Many houses had their own customaries, which have been collected in the Corpus consuetudinum monasticarum,6 but they were within the framework of the Rule of Benedict, and most customaries were designed to promote a uniform liturgy and observance in groups of monastic houses, which were later referred to as orders. The customs of independent religious houses, including some of the greatest, such as Monte Cassino, were primarily enshrined in the memories and practices of their members. The customaries were supplemented in the eleventh and twelfth centuries, as the orders developed, by the statutes issued by the superiors of the mother house, as at Cluny, or by the decrees of general chapters, which included representatives from all the member houses, as in the orders of Cîteaux and Prémontré.7 It is possible that most Byzantine monasteries originally had their own typika, of which the surviving examples (except for a few liturgical typika) are collected here. They were sometimes confirmed by a public authority, preferably the emperor, and served as the legal basis and protection for the communities to which they were granted. In this they resembled foundation charters in the West but were more comprehensive in their scope and content. The typikon of the monastery of the archangel Michael, (37) Auxentios, was called a constitution [1], and that of the monastery of St. John the Forerunner, (58) Menoikeion, “this very monastic constitution” [22]. Previously, it 3 On the contrast between Byzantine typika and western monastic foundation charters, see the comments of Georg Schreiber, “Anselm von Havelberg und die Ostkirche,” ZKG 60 (1941), 384–410, esp. 387– 90, and “Byzantinisches und abendländisches Hospital,” in his Gemeinschaften des Mittelalters (Münster, 1948), p. 9. 4 Adalbert de Vogüé, Les règles monastiques anciennes (400–700) ( = Typologie des sources du moyen âge occidental 46) (Turnhout, 1985), pp. 22–23, stressed the parallel between eastern typika and early Latin, Irish, and Syrian monastic rules. 5 See Schreiber, “Anselm,” pp. 397 and 403–4, who also stressed (pp. 394–95 and 407) that there was no Cluny and no St. Bernard nor St. Norbert in the East, and Alice-Mary Talbot, “Monasticism,” ODB, p. 1393. 6 Corpus consuetudinum monasticarum, ed. Kassius Hallinger (Siegburg, 1963– ), 12 vols. in 16 to date. 7 Jacques Hourlier, Le chapitre général jusqu’au moment du Grande Schisme (Paris, 1936). Collections of the statutes and decrees of the general chapters of the orders of Cluny and Cîteaux have been published, respectively, by Georges Charvin and Joseph-Marie Canivez. [ xii ] PREFACE appears, this latter house had neither “a typikon which could be produced at any time before an official or magistrate or in any kind of court where legal arguments regarding matters of the law and lawsuits take place” nor “an authoritative document in which all sorts of sacred matters are written down as well as other things such as the immovable property belonging to the monastery and the rights pertaining to these properties so that these remain stable and safeguarded against seizures” [2]. Some monasteries also had other types of governing documents. There is a reference in (54) Neilos Damilas for the convent of the Mother of God Pantanassa in Crete, which dates from about 1400, to a tabularion written not in Greek, the language of the nuns, but in Latin so that it could be understood by the Venetians who controlled Crete at that time [18]. Owing to their legal and practical importance, the typika were preserved with special care, to which there are many references. This unique character may also explain the prescriptions requiring that they be read aloud, sometimes as often as three, seven, or twelve times a year. Given the length and complexity of some of the typika, this must have been a time-consuming business, and if the members of the community paid attention, they would have known their typikon almost by heart. There are comparable provisions in the West for reading the Rule of the Master, Rule of Benedict, the Regula IV Patrum, and other early monastic rules.8 Writing was also of importance as the monastic orders spread in the high Middle Ages.9 Their rules and customs had a common character and were designed for many houses, however, in spite of particular observances, whereas monks and nuns in the East had a sense of their typikon as the embodiment and protection of their own special rights and way of life. The difference between the typika in the East and the rules in the West affected the nature of t...
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  • Fall '12
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  • Monastery, typikon, Alice-Mary Talbot, George Dennis

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