ENST 471 ppt

ENST 471 ppt - Human Impacts on p Estuarine Processes What...

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Human Impacts on Estuarine Processes
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hat is an estuary? What is an estuary?
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wo Major Components: Definition Two Major Components: 1) Gradation from fresh water (river) to saline (ocean) ) idal influence 2) Tidal influence es tu ar y (L. aestuarium , the tide, orig. boiling) “A semi-enclosed coastal body of water which has a ee connection with the open sea and within free connection with the open sea and within which seawater is measurably diluted with fresh water derived from land.”
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Estuarine ecosystems consist of: -the river channel, to the maximum upstream extent of tidal influence -the adjacent coastal waters, to the maximum extent of freshwater flow -salt marshes that develop along the shore line, built up from riverine sediments deposited as river flow rate slows once ea level is reached; subject to daily tidal inundation sea level is reached; subject to daily tidal inundation Estuaries are zones of mixing, displaying a strong salinity gradient from land to sea ther gradients? Other gradients?
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Estuary Distribution • Estuaries are found around the global coastal zone, wherever rivers (large or small) enter the sea • There are thousands of geographical features that fit the criteria • Estuaries cover an area of ~10 6 km 2 ~ 0.3% of the world ocean ~ 4% of the world continental shelf
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Terms • Estuaries and Coastal Zones • The flanks of the continents rise steeply from depth ut do not reach the but do not reach the sea surface, ending t the shelf. at the shelf.
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Continental Shelf Areas of the World: Darkened areas indicate shelf, notice extended shelf along the east coast of the continents Shelf seas: are the part of the worlds ocean adjacent to a coast, and within the 200 m isobath. Coastal ocean: display dynamics of the deep ocean (mixing driven by wind). Estuaries on the other hand, have mixing driven mainly by thermohaline forcing (temperature and salinity gradients drive the mixing) or wind.
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Eastern North Carolina
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Why study estuaries and coastal environments? ½ of world’s population lives within 100 km of ocean (World Health Organization) • They are beautiful! – 51% of U.S. population lives in a coastal county the United States alone 230 million people visit the coast In the United States alone, 230 million people visit the coast every year (National Resource Council) •“ ilution is not the solution to our pollution ” Dilution is not the solution to our pollution.
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ENST 471 ppt - Human Impacts on p Estuarine Processes What...

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