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BIOL 100 – Kelli Elliott Lecture & Assigned Reading Outline Exam 3 I. DNA pg 125 a. Structure: Phosphate group, sugar(deoxyribose), and nitrogenous base i. 4 possible nitrogenous bases: adenine, thymine, cytosine, guanine 1. adenine and guanine are purines(double rings) 2. cytosine and thymine are pyrimidines(single rings) THEY ALL BOND THROUGH HYDROGEN BONDS a. know which bases pair together (complimentary) and why. i. Guanine & Cytosine: can form three hydrogen bonds ii. Thymine & Adenine : can form 2 hydrogen bonds iii. C and T cant pair with each other beacause of the positions of the atoms in each nucleotide iv. Purines pair with complementary pyrimidines b. Function: 1. Cell division: mitosis and meiosis a. Mitosis: division of genetic material that yields two genetically identical cells b. meiosis: division of genetic material that halves the chromosome number and yields genetically variable gametes i. DNA replicates once but the nucleus divides twice ii. MEIOSIS I: homologous chromosomes pair up and separate iii. Meiosis ii: yields 4 non identical Haploid cells daughter cells ( n=2) 2. Protein synthesis: requires transcription and translation i. transcription: process by which genetic information encoded in DNA is copied onto messenger RNA 1. occurs in the nucleus a. DNA- m RNA ii. Translation: process by which information encoded in m RNA is used to assemble a protein at a ribosome 1. Occurs on a ribosome a. m RNA- protein iii. BOTH HAVE C,G,U,A and nucleotides b. How is DNA replicated?
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i. The double helix is unwound and each strand acts as template for the next strand c. You do not need to know the names of the enzymes, but you should know the name of the enzymes, but you should know what the different enzymes do in general for this process d. What is different between mitochondrial DNA and nuclear Dna with respect to how it is passed down from parent to child? i. Nuclear DNA: located in the nucleus of eukaryoute cells & has two copies per cell 1. Chromosome is linear with open ends and includes 46 chromosomes(23 each for parent) double stranded 2. Linear(diploid) 3. Is inherited from all ancestors ii. Mitochondrial DNA is located in the mitochondria 100-1000 copies per cell 1. Double stranded and circular 2. One chromosome ( circular genome) 3. Only transmitted from mother 4. Is inherited from a single lineage II. Protein synthesis: A multi step process that takes the coded message of DNA and converts it into a usable protein molecule a. Organelles and other “players” involved: DNA, messengerRNA, transferRNA, ribosomalRNA, nucleus, rough endoplasmic reticulum, golgiapparatus, cytoplasm, amino acids 1. Messenger RNA: (transcription) a molecule that carries DNA’s coded instructions to make a protein : encodes amino acid sequence a. Carries the information that specifies a protein each group of three mRNA bases in a row forms a codon, which is a genetic “code word” that corresponds to one amino acid 2. TransferRNA: binds mRNA codon on one end and an amino acid on the other, linking a gene’s message to the amino acid sequence it encodes a.
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