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Unformatted text preview: PSY 150A1: Structure of Mind and Behavior Study Guide #3 Fall 2017
Chapter 12: Developmental Psychology
• What is developmental psychology?
- - - branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, emotional, & social change
across the lifespan
• What are the 3 stages of prenatal development? Describe the major
changes that happen at each of these stages.
1. Zygote: fertilized egg
- 23 pairs of chromosomes, 1/2 of each pair from egg (X), 1/2 from sperm (X or
- XX = female, XY = male
- by 1 week: ~100 cells
- Cellular differentiation
- By 10-14 days: zygote attaches to uterine wall
- Outer layer → placenta
- Inner layer → embryo
2. Embryo: weeks 2-8
- Major axis of body forms
- 1st signs of organ development
- E.g. heart begins to beat
3. Fetus: 9 weeks - birth
- By 6th month: organs developed enough to (possibly) survive premature birth
- Sensitive to both light and sound • What is a teratogen? Give some examples of teratogens.
- Agent that causes birth defects. Any type of environmental threat that affects prenatal
- E.g. hormones
- Cortisol: stress hormones
- High cortisol levels during pregnancy —> growth genes operate slower
- E.g. viruses
- E.g. radiation
- E.g drug use
- Nicotine → lower birth weight, greater risk of SIDS (babies die
unexpectedly: SUDDEN INFANT DEATH)
- Alcohol → Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
- intellectual disability, memory/attention deficits, stunted growth,
facial abnormalities • What is Down syndrome? Describe the major symptoms of Down syndrome.
One of the causes of intellectual disability, occurs when the zygote receives an extra
chromosome at the moment of conception. Down syndrome is often related to the mother’s
age; mothers over 35 or under 18 stand a higher risk than do other (or, than other women do)
women of having a child with the syndrome
- A genetic threat caused by 3rd copy of the 21st chromosome
- Heart/eye/ear defects
- Sleep apnea
- Poor muscle tone
- Short limbs
- Facial abnormalities
- Intellectual disability (avg IQ = 50 - 55)
- 1 in 800-1000 births, age of mother critical (older, more likely)
- No treatment - instead, treat symptoms • Describe how brain development changes during prenatal development, during
childhood, and during adolescence.
- Prenatal: neural development
- At peak, 250,000 new neurons per minute!
Children: neural connections
- Development of neural networks
Adolescence: pruning process of neural connections • Describe the groundbreaking work of Jean Piaget. Be sure to include answers to
Developmental Stage Theory
The sensorimotor stage Ages: Birth to 2 Years Major Characteristics and Developmental Changes: ● The infant knows the world through their movements and sensations. ● Children learn about the world through basic actions such as sucking, grasping, looking, and listening. ● Infants learn that things continue to exist even though they cannot be seen (object permanence). ● They are separate beings from the people and objects around them. ● They realize that their actions can cause things to happen in the world around them The preoperational stage Ages: 2 to 7 Years Major Characteristics and Developmental Changes: ● Children begin to think symbolically and learn to use words and pictures to represent objects. ● Children at this stage tend to be egocentric and struggle to see things from the perspective of others. ● While they are getting better with language and thinking, they still tend to think about things in very concrete terms. The Concrete Operational Stage Ages: 7 to 11 Years Major Characteristics and Developmental Changes ● During this stage, children begin to think logically about concrete events. ● They begin to understand the concept of conservation; that the amount of liquid in a short, wide cup is equal to that in a tall, skinny glass, for example. ● Their thinking becomes more logical and organized, but still very concrete. ● Children begin using inductive logic, or reasoning from specific information to a general principle The formal Operational Stage Ages: 12 and Up Major Characteristics and Developmental Changes: ● At this stage, the adolescent or young adult begins to think abstractly and reason about hypothetical problems. ● Abstract thought emerges. ● Teens begin to think more about moral, philosophical, ethical, social, and political issues that require theoretical and abstract reasoning. ● Begin to use deductive logic, or reasoning from a general principle to specific information. o According to Piaget, why is schema development important during
childhood? How do assimilation and accommodation help children develop
- Jean Piaget (1896-1980)
-children as active thinkers, trying to understand experiences à develop schemas - -schema: concept/framework that helps organize & interpret info
Schema development is important during childhood because it is the framework that
helps to organize and interpret information
Assimilation is interpreting new experiences in terms of existing schemas
Accommodation is adapting schemas to incorporate new information o Describe Piaget’s 4 stage model of cognitive development, and the
cognitive skills that develop at each stage. Be sure to include the following terms:
▪ object permanence: awareness that objects continue to exist when not perceived
▪ mental representations: Ability to visualize things that are not physically
▪ conservation: principle that quantity remains the same despite changes in shape
▪ theory of mind: ability to attribute mental states to yourself and others. Allows us to infer
feelings, thoughts, and perceptions of others.
- From birth → age 2
World knowledge = sensory info, motor activities
Development of object permanence: awareness that objects continue to exist when not
-About 8 months old - Maybe even Piaget underestimated infants cognitive competence?
- Ages 2 - 7
Ability to create mental representations:Ability to visualize things that are not
Develop concept of conservation: principle that quantity remains the same despite
Egocentrism: difficulty taking another’s point of view
Assume everyone sees what they see
Typical of early childhood (and never fully disappears)
Theory of mind: the ability to attribute mental states to yourself and others
- Allows us to infer feelings, perceptions, thoughts, take others perspective, and
- Band-aid study
- Jenkins & Astington (1996): ask what is in the band-aid box (actually
pencils) - what would someone else guess if they had never seen this box
- 3 years old: pencils
- 4-5 years old: bandaids Concrete Operational Stage
- Ages 7-12
Ability to engage in concrete operations
- Manipulating mental representations of concrete objects
- E.g. cutting a pizza into 8 pieces instead of 6 (not actually more food,
but more slices)
- Emergence of reversibility
- E.g. understanding conservation 1. Formal Operational stage
- Age 12-adulthood
- Expanding logical abilities
- Concrete (actual experience) → formal
- Abstract, magines realities, symbols
- What is vs. what could be
- E.g. 2x + 5 = 15
- Not necessarily reality bound
• What are the major symptoms of autism spectrum disorder? What are our
current ideas about why autism may occur?
Symptoms: social interaction impairments (impaired theory of mind), communication
impairments (delayed onset of babbling, echolalia-repeating sounds), repetitive behaviors
(useless movement, compulsive behaviors)
Why it may occur: -IT’S NOT VACCINES. THERE IS NO RELIABLE AND VALID
EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE THAT VACCINES CAUSES AUTISM
Genetics & disruption to mirror neuron system?
• What is attachment?
- Emotional tie with another person o What did Harry Harlow’s research demonstratex about attachment?
- Baby monkeys preferred soft artificial mother (with blanket) over wire artificial
mother, even when wire mother had food. - ytd. o What did Konrad Lorenz’s research demonstrate about attachment?
- Many species attach to those experienced during critical period. If he was the first thing
ducklings saw that moved, they followed him around (imprinted on him). Human
babies do not imprint but they do form strong attachment to the familiar. ▪ What is a critical period? What is imprinting? What is the mere exposure
- - Critical period: organisms are susceptible to certain kinds of stimuli
- Example: children developing language problems due to being exposed
to drugs in the developing stages
Imprinting: behavior that takes place during critical period and attachment to
first moving objects observed
Mere Exposure Effect: encountering a stimulus repeatedly makes one like it
more o Describe each of the following attachment styles:
- - - - - secure attachment: 65% of 1 year olds, active exploration when AF (attachment
figure) is present, upset by separation but warm greetings upon return, outgoing with
strangers when AF is present.
avoidant attachment: 20% of 1 year olds, little distress upon separation, ignore AF
upon return, ignore and avoid strangers
resistant attachment: 10% of 1 year olds, stay close to AF, little exploration, very
distressed upon separation, upon return: ambivalence (remain close but act angry and
resist physical contact), wary of strangers
disorganized/disoriented attachment: 5-10% of 1 year olds, resistant and avoidant
behaviors, confusion about whether to approach or avoid AF, may act dazed and
freeze→ move closer than abruptly move away
Securely attached children. Children who are securely attached employ the mother as
a kind of home base; they explore independently but return to her occasionally. When
she leaves, they exhibit distress, and they go to her when she returns.
Avoidant children. Avoidant children do not cry when the mother leaves, and they
seem to avoid her when she returns as if they were indifferent to her.
Ambivalent children. Ambivalent children display anxiety before they are separated
and are upset when the mother leaves, but they may show ambivalent reactions to her - return, such as seeking close contact but simultaneously hitting and kicking her.
Disorganized-disoriented children. A fourth reaction is disorganized-disoriented;these
children show inconsistent and often contradictory behavior. For example, they may
approach their mother, but do so avoiding eye contact or otherwise acting in an
inappropriate way. • Describe Erik Erikson’s 8 stage model of psychosocial development.
- Each stage has an issue/crisis to be resolved, success = psychological growth, failure =
psychological defects, don't need to succeed at one stage to move on. (psychosocial
development continues through life) • Describe Lawrence Kohlberg’s 3 stage model of moral development. How does
morality get expressed at each of these stages?
Based on responses to hypothetical moral dilemmas, built on Piaget’s ideas, moral thinking
depends on cognitive development. Shortcoming of his studies is that he primarily studied on
1. Preconventional stage: morality of self-interest, tend to think in terms of concrete,
unvarying rules “It is always wrong to steal” or “I’ll be punished if I steal”
2. Conventional stage: care for others, follow rules because they are rules. Older children
tend to focus on the rules of society (“Good people don’t steal” or “What if everyone
3. Postconventional stage: broad abstract principles of right vs wrong
• What is dementia?
- Progressive loss of cognitive function, beyond normal aging
Occurs with old age - Memory problems & confused thinking o What is Alzheimer’s disease? What do we currently know about the causes of
- Gradual deterioration of memory, reasoning, language, and physical functioning
Confusion, irritability, mood swings
Production of beta amyloid precursor protein increases, causes inflammation and
deterioration. Brain shrinks and neurons die.
- Loss of brain cells
- Deterioration of acetylcholine-producing neurons (memory & thinking
- 2 abnormalities in neurons: plaques at tips of neuron branches &
neurofibrillary tangles in cell bodies
- Alzheimer’s occurs when production of the beta amyloid precursor
protein goes awry, producing large clumps of cells that trigger
inflammation and deterioration of nerve cells. The brain shrinks, neurons
die, and several areas of the hippocampus and frontal and temporal lobes
deteriorate. So far, there is no effective treatment • How does memory change in old age?
- Decline in episodic memory • How does intelligence change in old age?
- As people age, fluid intelligence decreases in late adulthood. Crystallized intelligence
remains constant and sometimes improves. o What is the difference between a cross-sectional study and a longitudinal study?
- Cross sectional assesses differences among groups of people
Longitudinal assesses change of behavior over time o What is the difference between crystallized intelligence and fluid intelligence?
- Crystallized intelligence: based on the accumulation of information, skills, and
strategies learned through experience.
Fluid intelligence: information-processing skills such as memory, calculations, and
analogy solving. • Why do men typically have a shorter lifespan than women?
● Higher suicide rates
● Consume more alcohol, nicotine, and other drugs ● Males more aggressive
Chapter 13: Personality Psychology
• What is personality psychology?
- The study of personality and variance among individuals.
Includes: construction of psychological processes and psychological differences
Pattern of enduring characteristics that produce consistency and individuality • Describe the basic principles of Freudian psychoanalysis. Be sure to include the
● Hydraulic theory that attributes thoughts and behavior to unconscious motives and
● Patients’ issues: too much “pressure” in unconscious?
● Accessing unconscious > releases pressure.
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) à first “therapist”
-early interest in cocaine as treatment for physical, mental ailments
-addiction, overdoses, etc.
-developed interest in nervous disorders
-defined by anxieties
-treated for “hysteria” by Freud
-limb paralysis on right side of body
-vision, hearing, & speech issues
-loss of consciousness
-faking symptoms? Sympathy from Freud à first “therapy” sessions
-hypnosis: traumatic childhood memory
o What is the unconscious? Why was the unconscious such a revolutionary
concept for Freud to suggest? - Unconscious: collection of unacceptable thoughts, wishes, desires, feelings and
Powerful influence over thoughts/behavior?
He was the first to suggest it o Why were dreams, free associations, and slips of the tongue important to
- Freud found deeper meaning in everything
Represent unconscious motives and conflicts in our thoughts/behavior
dreams: latent content (underlying meaning of dream) vs. manifest content
free association: stating first thing that comes to mind after being presented with
slip of the tongue: meaning to say one thing and accidently saying another o What is a projective test? Give an example of a projective test.
- Personality test using ambiguous stimuli to elicit projection of inner conflict.
Rorschach inkblot test: presented ambiguous pictures and must define content. o Wh...
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- Fall '13
- Developmental Psychology, Cortisol