PSY 150 Study Guide 3.pdf - PSY 150A1 Structure of Mind and Behavior Study Guide#3 Fall 2017 Chapter 12 Developmental Psychology What is developmental

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Unformatted text preview: ​ ​ ​ ​PSY​ ​ ​150A1:​ ​ ​Structure​ ​ ​of​ ​ ​Mind​ ​ ​and​ ​ ​Behavior​ ​ ​ ​Study​ ​ ​Guide​ ​ ​#3​ ​ ​ ​Fall​ ​ ​2017 Chapter​ ​ ​12:​ ​ ​Developmental​ ​ ​Psychology •​ ​What​ ​ ​is​ ​ ​developmental​ ​ ​psychology? - - - branch​ ​of​ ​psychology​ ​that​ ​studies​ ​physical,​ ​cognitive,​ ​emotional,​ ​&​ ​social​ ​change across​ ​the​ ​lifespan •​ ​What​ ​ ​are​ ​ ​the​ ​ ​3​ ​ ​stages​ ​ ​of​ ​ ​prenatal​ ​ ​development?​ ​ ​ ​ ​Describe​ ​ ​the​ ​ ​major changes​ ​ ​that​ ​ ​happen​ ​ ​at​ ​ ​each​ ​ ​of​ ​ ​these​ ​ ​stages. 1.​​ ​Zygote​:​ ​fertilized​ ​egg - 23​ ​pairs​ ​of​ ​chromosomes,​ ​1/2​ ​of​ ​each​ ​pair​ ​from​ ​egg​ ​(X),​ ​1/2​ ​from​ ​sperm​ ​(X​ ​or Y) - XX​ ​=​ ​female,​ ​XY​ ​=​ ​male - by​ ​1​ ​week:​ ​~100​ ​cells - Cellular​ ​differentiation - By​ ​10-14​ ​days:​ ​zygote​ ​attaches​ ​to​ ​uterine​ ​wall - Outer​ ​layer​ ​→​ ​placenta - Inner​ ​layer​ ​→​ ​embryo 2.​ ​Embryo​:​ ​weeks​ ​2-8 - Major​ ​axis​ ​of​ ​body​ ​forms - 1st​ ​signs​ ​of​ ​organ​ ​development - E.g.​ ​heart​ ​begins​ ​to​ ​beat 3.​ ​Fetus​:​ ​9​ ​weeks​ ​-​ ​birth - By​ ​6th​ ​month:​ ​organs​ ​developed​ ​enough​ ​to​ ​(possibly)​ ​survive​ ​premature​ ​birth - Sensitive​ ​to​ ​both​ ​light​ ​and​ ​sound •​ ​What​ ​ ​is​ ​ ​a​ ​ ​teratogen?​ ​ ​ ​ ​Give​ ​ ​some​ ​ ​examples​ ​ ​of​ ​ ​teratogens. - Agent​ ​that​ ​causes​ ​birth​ ​defects.​ ​Any​ ​type​ ​of​ ​environmental​ ​threat​ ​that​ ​affects​ ​prenatal development. - E.g.​ ​hormones - Cortisol:​​ ​stress​ ​hormones - High​ ​cortisol​ ​levels​ ​during​ ​pregnancy​ ​—>​ ​growth​ ​genes​ ​operate​ ​slower - E.g.​ ​viruses - E.g.​ ​radiation - E.g​ ​drug​ ​use - Nicotine​ ​→​ ​lower​ ​birth​ ​weight,​ ​greater​ ​risk​ ​of​ ​SIDS​​ ​(babies​ ​die unexpectedly:​ ​SUDDEN​ ​INFANT​ ​DEATH) - Alcohol​ ​→​ ​Fetal​ ​Alcohol​ ​Syndrome - ​ ​intellectual​ ​disability,​ ​memory/attention​ ​deficits,​ ​stunted​ ​growth, facial​ ​abnormalities •​ ​What​ ​ ​is​ ​ ​Down​ ​ ​syndrome?​ ​ ​ ​ ​Describe​ ​ ​the​ ​ ​major​ ​ ​symptoms​ ​ ​of​ ​ ​Down​ ​ ​syndrome. One​ ​of​ ​the​ ​causes​ ​of​ ​intellectual​ ​disability,​ ​occurs​ ​when​ ​the​ ​zygote​ ​receives​ ​an​ ​extra chromosome​ ​at​ ​the​ ​moment​ ​of​ ​conception.​ ​Down​ ​syndrome​ ​is​ ​often​ ​related​ ​to​ ​the​ ​mother’s age;​ ​mothers​ ​over​ ​35​ ​or​ ​under​ ​18​ ​stand​ ​a​ ​higher​ ​risk​ ​than​ ​do​ ​other​ ​(or,​ ​than​ ​other​ ​women​ ​do) women​ ​of​ ​having​ ​a​ ​child​ ​with​ ​the​ ​syndrome - A​ ​genetic​ ​threat​ ​caused​ ​by​ ​3rd​ ​copy​ ​of​ ​the​ ​21st​ ​chromosome - Heart/eye/ear​ ​defects - Sleep​ ​apnea - Poor​ ​muscle​ ​tone - Short​ ​limbs - Facial​ ​abnormalities - Intellectual​ ​disability​ ​(avg​ ​IQ​ ​=​ ​50​ ​-​ ​55) - 1​ ​in​ ​800-1000​ ​births,​ ​age​ ​of​ ​mother​ ​critical​ ​(older,​ ​more​ ​likely) - No​ ​treatment​ -​ ​instead,​ ​treat​ ​symptoms •​ ​Describe​ ​ ​how​ ​ ​brain​ ​ ​development​ ​ ​changes​ ​ ​during​ ​ ​prenatal​ ​ ​development,​ ​ ​during childhood,​ ​ ​and​ ​ ​ ​during​ ​ ​adolescence. - Prenatal:​ ​neural​ ​development - At​ ​peak,​ ​250,000​ ​new​ ​neurons​ ​per​ ​minute! Children:​ ​neural​ ​connections - Development​ ​of​ ​neural​ ​networks Adolescence:​ ​pruning​ ​process​ ​of​ ​neural​ ​connections •​ ​Describe​ ​ ​the​ ​ ​groundbreaking​ ​ ​work​ ​ ​of​ ​ ​Jean​ ​ ​Piaget.​ ​ ​ ​ ​Be​ ​ ​sure​ ​ ​to​ ​ ​include​ ​ ​answers​ ​ ​to the​ ​ ​following: Developmental​ ​Stage​ ​Theory The​ ​sensorimotor​ ​stage Ages:​ ​Birth​ ​to​ ​2​ ​Years Major​ ​Characteristics​ ​and​ ​Developmental​ ​Changes: ● The​ ​infant​ ​knows​ ​the​ ​world​ ​through​ ​their​ ​movements​ ​and​ ​sensations. ● Children​ ​learn​ ​about​ ​the​ ​world​ ​through​ ​basic​ ​actions​ ​such​ ​as​ ​sucking,​ ​grasping,​ ​looking, and​ ​listening. ● Infants​ ​learn​ ​that​ ​things​ ​continue​ ​to​ ​exist​ ​even​ ​though​ ​they​ ​cannot​ ​be​ ​seen​ ​(object permanence). ● They​ ​are​ ​separate​ ​beings​ ​from​ ​the​ ​people​ ​and​ ​objects​ ​around​ ​them. ● They​ ​realize​ ​that​ ​their​ ​actions​ ​can​ ​cause​ ​things​ ​to​ ​happen​ ​in​ ​the​ ​world​ ​around​ ​them The​ ​preoperational​ ​stage Ages:​ ​2​ ​to​ ​7​ ​Years Major​ ​Characteristics​ ​and​ ​Developmental​ ​Changes: ● Children​ ​begin​ ​to​ ​think​ ​symbolically​ ​and​ ​learn​ ​to​ ​use​ ​words​ ​and​ ​pictures​ ​to​ ​represent objects. ● Children​ ​at​ ​this​ ​stage​ ​tend​ ​to​ ​be​ ​egocentric​ ​and​ ​struggle​ ​to​ ​see​ ​things​ ​from​ ​the​ ​perspective of​ ​others. ● While​ ​they​ ​are​ ​getting​ ​better​ ​with​ ​language​ ​and​ ​thinking,​ ​they​ ​still​ ​tend​ ​to​ ​think​ ​about things​ ​in​ ​very​ ​concrete​ ​terms. The​ ​Concrete​ ​Operational​ ​Stage Ages:​ ​7​ ​to​ ​11​ ​Years Major​ ​Characteristics​ ​and​ ​Developmental​ ​Changes ● During​ ​this​ ​stage,​ ​children​ ​begin​ ​to​ ​think​ ​logically​ ​about​ ​concrete​ ​events. ● They​ ​begin​ ​to​ ​understand​ ​the​ ​concept​ ​of​ ​conservation;​ ​that​ ​the​ ​amount​ ​of​ ​liquid​ ​in​ ​a​ ​short, wide​ ​cup​ ​is​ ​equal​ ​to​ ​that​ ​in​ ​a​ ​tall,​ ​skinny​ ​glass,​ ​for​ ​example. ● Their​ ​thinking​ ​becomes​ ​more​ ​logical​ ​and​ ​organized,​ ​but​ ​still​ ​very​ ​concrete. ● Children​ ​begin​ ​using​ ​inductive​ ​logic,​ ​or​ ​reasoning​ ​from​ ​specific​ ​information​ ​to​ ​a​ ​general principle The​ ​formal​ ​Operational​ ​Stage Ages:​ ​12​ ​and​ ​Up Major​ ​Characteristics​ ​and​ ​Developmental​ ​Changes: ● At​ ​this​ ​stage,​ ​the​ ​adolescent​ ​or​ ​young​ ​adult​ ​begins​ ​to​ ​think​ ​abstractly​ ​and​ ​reason​ ​about hypothetical​ ​problems. ● Abstract​ ​thought​ ​emerges. ● Teens​ ​begin​ ​to​ ​think​ ​more​ ​about​ ​moral,​ ​philosophical,​ ​ethical,​ ​social,​ ​and​ ​political​ ​issues that​ ​require​ ​theoretical​ ​and​ ​abstract​ ​reasoning. ● Begin​ ​to​ ​use​ ​deductive​ ​logic,​ ​or​ ​reasoning​ ​from​ ​a​ ​general​ ​principle​ ​to​ ​specific​ ​information. o​ ​According​ ​ ​to​ ​ ​Piaget,​ ​ ​why​ ​ ​is​ ​ ​schema​ ​ ​development​ ​ ​important​ ​ ​during childhood?​ ​ ​ ​ ​How​ ​ ​do​ ​ ​assimilation​ ​ ​and​ ​ ​accommodation​ ​ ​help​ ​ ​children​ ​ ​develop schemas? - Jean​ ​Piaget​ ​(1896-1980) -children​ ​as​ ​active​ ​thinkers,​ ​trying​ ​to​ ​understand​ ​experiences​ ​à​ ​develop​ ​schemas - -​schema​:​ ​concept/framework​ ​that​ ​helps​ ​organize​ ​&​ ​interpret​ ​info Schema​ ​development​ ​is​ ​important​ ​during​ ​childhood​ ​because​ ​it​ ​is​ ​the​ ​framework​ ​that helps​ ​to​ ​organize​ ​and​ ​interpret​ ​information Assimilation​​ ​is​ ​interpreting​ ​new​ ​experiences​ ​in​ ​terms​ ​of​ ​existing​ ​schemas Accommodation​ ​is​ ​adapting​ ​schemas​ ​to​ ​incorporate​ ​new​ ​information o​ ​Describe​ ​ ​Piaget’s​ ​ ​4​ ​ ​stage​ ​ ​model​ ​ ​of​ ​ ​cognitive​ ​ ​development,​ ​ ​and​ ​ ​the cognitive​ ​ ​skills​ ​ ​that​ ​ ​develop​ ​ ​at​ ​ ​each​ ​ ​stage.​ ​ ​ ​ ​Be​ ​ ​sure​ ​ ​to​ ​ ​include​ ​ ​the​ ​ ​following​ ​ ​terms: ▪​ ​object​ ​ ​permanence:​ ​awareness​ ​that​ ​objects​ ​continue​ ​to​ ​exist​ ​when​ ​not​ ​perceived ▪​ ​mental​ ​ ​representations​:​ ​ ​Ability​ ​to​ ​visualize​ ​things​ ​that​ ​are​ ​not​ ​physically present ▪​ ​conservation:​ ​principle​ ​that​ ​quantity​ ​remains​ ​the​ ​same​ ​despite​ ​changes​ ​in​ ​shape ▪​ ​theory​ ​ ​of​ ​ ​mind:​ ​ ​ability​ ​to​ ​attribute​ ​mental​ ​states​ ​to​ ​yourself​ ​and​ ​others.​ ​Allows​ ​us​ ​to​ ​infer feelings,​ ​thoughts,​ ​and​ ​perceptions​ ​of​ ​others. Sensorimotor​ ​Stage - From​ ​birth​ ​→​ ​age​ ​2 World​ ​knowledge​ ​=​ ​sensory​ ​info,​ ​motor​ ​activities Development​ ​of​ ​object​ ​permanence​:​ ​awareness​ ​that​ ​objects​ ​continue​ ​to​ ​exist​ ​when​ ​not perceived -About​ ​8​ ​months​ ​old -​ ​Maybe​ ​even​ ​Piaget​ ​underestimated​ ​infants​ ​cognitive​ ​competence? Pre-operational​ ​Stage - Ages​ ​2​ ​-​ ​7 Ability​ ​to​ ​create​​ ​mental​ ​representations:​Ability​ ​to​ ​visualize​ ​things​ ​that​ ​are​ ​not physically​ ​present Develop​ ​concept​ ​of​ ​conservation​:​ ​principle​ ​that​ ​quantity​ ​remains​ ​the​ ​same​ ​despite shape​ ​changes Egocentrism:​ ​difficulty​ ​taking​ ​another’s​ ​point​ ​of​ ​view Assume​ ​everyone​ ​sees​ ​what​ ​they​ ​see Typical​ ​of​ ​early​ ​childhood​ ​(and​ ​never​ ​fully​ ​disappears) Theory​ ​of​ ​mind​:​ ​the​ ​ability​ ​to​ ​attribute​ ​mental​ ​states​ ​to​ ​yourself​ ​and​ ​others - Allows​ ​us​ ​to​ ​infer​ ​feelings,​ ​perceptions,​ ​thoughts,​ ​take​ ​others​ ​perspective,​ ​and predict​ ​behavior - Band-aid​ ​study - Jenkins​ ​&​ ​Astington​ ​(1996):​ ​ask​ ​what​ ​is​ ​in​ ​the​ ​band-aid​ ​box​ ​(actually pencils) - what​ ​would​ ​someone​ ​else​ ​guess​ ​if​ ​they​ ​had​ ​never​ ​seen​ ​this​ ​box before? - 3​ ​years​ ​old:​ ​pencils - 4-5​ ​years​ ​old:​ ​bandaids Concrete​ ​Operational​ ​Stage - Ages​ ​7-12 Ability​ ​to​ ​engage​ ​in​ ​concrete​ ​operations - Manipulating​ ​mental​ ​representations​ ​of​ ​concrete​ ​objects - E.g.​ ​cutting​ ​a​ ​pizza​ ​into​ ​8​ ​pieces​ ​instead​ ​of​ ​6​ ​(not​ ​actually​ ​more​ ​food, but​ ​more​ ​slices) - Emergence​ ​of​ ​reversibility - E.g.​ ​understanding​ ​conservation 1. Formal​ ​Operational​ ​stage - Age​ ​12-adulthood - Expanding​ ​logical​ ​abilities - Concrete​ ​(actual​ ​experience)​ ​→​ ​formal - Abstract,​ ​magines​ ​realities,​ ​symbols - What​ ​is​ ​vs.​ ​what​ ​could​ ​be - E.g.​ ​2x​ ​+​ ​5​ ​=​ ​15 - Not​ ​necessarily​ ​reality​ ​bound •​ ​What​ ​ ​are​ ​ ​the​ ​ ​major​ ​ ​symptoms​ ​ ​of​ ​ ​autism​ ​ ​spectrum​ ​ ​disorder?​ ​ ​ ​ ​What​ ​ ​are​ ​ ​our current​ ​ ​ideas​ ​ ​about​ ​ ​ ​why​ ​ ​autism​ ​ ​may​ ​ ​occur? Symptoms:​ ​social​ ​interaction​ ​impairments​ ​(impaired​ ​theory​ ​of​ ​mind),​ ​communication impairments​ ​(delayed​ ​onset​ ​of​ ​babbling,​ ​echolalia-repeating​ ​sounds),​ ​repetitive​ ​behaviors (useless​ ​movement,​ ​compulsive​ ​behaviors) Why​ ​it​ ​may​ ​occur:​ ​-​IT’S​ ​NOT​ ​VACCINES.​ ​THERE​ ​IS​ ​NO​ ​RELIABLE​ ​AND​ ​VALID EMPIRICAL​ ​EVIDENCE​ ​THAT​ ​VACCINES​ ​CAUSES​ ​AUTISM Genetics​ ​&​ ​disruption​ ​to​ ​mirror​ ​neuron​ ​system? •​ ​What​ ​ ​is​ ​ ​attachment? - ​ ​Emotional​ ​tie​ ​with​ ​another​ ​person o​ ​What​ ​ ​did​ ​ ​Harry​ ​ ​Harlow’s​ ​ ​research​ ​ ​demonstratex​ ​ ​about​ ​ ​attachment? - Baby​ ​monkeys​ ​preferred​ ​soft​ ​artificial​ ​mother​ ​(with​ ​blanket)​ ​over​ ​wire​ ​artificial mother,​ ​even​ ​when​ ​wire​ ​mother​ ​had​ ​food. - ytd. o​ ​What​ ​ ​did​ ​ ​Konrad​ ​ ​Lorenz’s​ ​ ​research​ ​ ​demonstrate​ ​ ​about​ ​ ​attachment? - Many​ ​species​ ​attach​ ​to​ ​those​ ​experienced​ ​during​ ​critical​ ​period.​ ​If​ ​he​ ​was​ ​the​ ​first​ ​thing ducklings​ ​saw​ ​that​ ​moved,​ ​they​ ​followed​ ​him​ ​around​ ​(imprinted​ ​on​ ​him).​ ​Human babies​ ​do​ ​not​ ​imprint​ ​but​ ​they​ ​do​ ​form​ ​strong​ ​attachment​ ​to​ ​the​ ​familiar. ▪​ ​What​ ​ ​is​ ​ ​a​ ​ ​critical​ ​ ​period?​ ​ ​ ​ ​What​ ​ ​is​ ​ ​imprinting?​ ​What​ ​ ​is​ ​ ​the​ ​ ​mere​ ​ ​exposure effect? - - Critical​ ​period​:​ ​organisms​ ​are​ ​susceptible​ ​to​ ​certain​ ​kinds​ ​of​ ​stimuli - Example:​ ​children​ ​developing​ ​language​ ​problems​ ​due​ ​to​ ​being​ ​exposed to​ ​drugs​ ​in​ ​the​ ​developing​ ​stages Imprinting​:​ ​behavior​ ​that​ ​takes​ ​place​ ​during​ ​critical​ ​period​ ​and​ ​attachment​ ​to first​ ​moving​ ​objects​ ​observed Mere​ ​Exposure​ ​Effect​:​ ​encountering​ ​a​ ​stimulus​ ​repeatedly​ ​makes​ ​one​ ​like​ ​it more o​ ​Describe​ ​ ​each​ ​ ​of​ ​ ​the​ ​ ​following​ ​ ​attachment​ ​ ​styles: - - - - - secure​ ​ ​attachment:​ ​65%​ ​of​ ​1​ ​year​ ​olds,​ ​active​ ​exploration​ ​when​ ​AF​ ​(attachment figure)​ ​is​ ​present,​ ​upset​ ​by​ ​separation​ ​but​ ​warm​ ​greetings​ ​upon​ ​return,​ ​outgoing​ ​with strangers​ ​when​ ​AF​ ​is​ ​present. avoidant​ ​ ​attachment:​ ​20%​ ​of​ ​1​ ​year​ ​olds,​ ​little​ ​distress​ ​upon​ ​separation,​ ​ignore​ ​AF upon​ ​return,​ ​ignore​ ​and​ ​avoid​ ​strangers resistant​ ​ ​attachment:​ ​10%​ ​of​ ​1​ ​year​ ​olds,​ ​stay​ ​close​ ​to​ ​AF,​ ​little​ ​exploration,​ ​very distressed​ ​upon​ ​separation,​ ​upon​ ​return:​ ​ambivalence​ ​(remain​ ​close​ ​but​ ​act​ ​angry​ ​and resist​ ​physical​ ​contact),​ ​wary​ ​of​ ​strangers disorganized/disoriented​ ​attachment:​ ​5-10%​ ​of​ ​1​ ​year​ ​olds,​ ​resistant​ ​and​ ​avoidant behaviors,​ ​confusion​ ​about​ ​whether​ ​to​ ​approach​ ​or​ ​avoid​ ​AF,​ ​may​ ​act​ ​dazed​ ​and freeze→​ ​move​ ​closer​ ​than​ ​abruptly​ ​move​ ​away - Examples: Securely​ ​attached​ ​children.​ ​Children​ ​who​ ​are​ ​securely​ ​attached​ ​employ​ ​the​ ​mother​ ​as a​ ​kind​ ​of​ ​home​ ​base;​ ​they​ ​explore​ ​independently​ ​but​ ​return​ ​to​ ​her​ ​occasionally.​ ​When she​ ​leaves,​ ​they​ ​exhibit​ ​distress,​ ​and​ ​they​ ​go​ ​to​ ​her​ ​when​ ​she​ ​returns. Avoidant​ ​children.​ ​Avoidant​ ​children​ ​do​ ​not​ ​cry​ ​when​ ​the​ ​mother​ ​leaves,​ ​and​ ​they seem​ ​to​ ​avoid​ ​her​ ​when​ ​she​ ​returns​ ​as​ ​if​ ​they​ ​were​ ​indifferent​ ​to​ ​her. Ambivalent​ ​children.​ ​Ambivalent​ ​children​ ​display​ ​anxiety​ ​before​ ​they​ ​are​ ​separated and​ ​are​ ​upset​ ​when​ ​the​ ​mother​ ​leaves,​ ​but​ ​they​ ​may​ ​show​ ​ambivalent​ ​reactions​ ​to​ ​her - return,​ ​such​ ​as​ ​seeking​ ​close​ ​contact​ ​but​ ​simultaneously​ ​hitting​ ​and​ ​kicking​ ​her. Disorganized-disoriented​ ​children.​ ​A​ ​fourth​ ​reaction​ ​is​ ​disorganized-disoriented;​these children​ ​show​ ​inconsistent​ ​and​ ​often​ ​contradictory​ ​behavior.​ ​ ​For​ ​example,​ ​they​ ​may approach​ ​their​ ​mother,​ ​but​ ​do​ ​so​ ​avoiding​ ​eye​ ​contact​ ​or​ ​otherwise​ ​acting​ ​in​ ​an inappropriate​ ​way​. •​ ​Describe​ ​ ​Erik​ ​ ​Erikson’s​ ​ ​8​ ​ ​stage​ ​ ​model​ ​ ​of​ ​ ​psychosocial​ ​ ​development. - Each​ ​stage​ ​has​ ​an​ ​issue/crisis​ ​to​ ​be​ ​resolved,​ ​success​ ​=​ ​psychological​ ​growth,​ ​failure​ ​= psychological​ ​defects,​ ​don't​ ​need​ ​to​ ​succeed​ ​at​ ​one​ ​stage​ ​to​ ​move​ ​on.​ ​(psychosocial development​ ​continues​ ​through​ ​life) •​ ​Describe​ ​ ​Lawrence​ ​ ​Kohlberg’s​ ​ ​3​ ​ ​stage​ ​ ​model​ ​ ​of​ ​ ​moral​ ​ ​development.​ ​ ​ ​ ​How​ ​ ​does morality​ ​ ​get​ ​ ​ ​expressed​ ​ ​at​ ​ ​each​ ​ ​of​ ​ ​these​ ​ ​stages? Based​ ​on​ ​responses​ ​to​ ​hypothetical​ ​moral​ ​dilemmas,​ built​ ​on​ ​Piaget’s​ ​ideas,​ ​moral​ ​thinking depends​ ​on​ ​cognitive​ ​development.​ ​Shortcoming​ ​of​ ​his​ ​studies​ ​is​ ​that​ ​he​ ​primarily​ ​studied​ ​on only​ ​males 1. Preconventional​ ​stage​:​ ​morality​ ​of​ ​self-interest,​ ​tend​ ​to​ ​think​ ​in​ ​terms​ ​of​ ​concrete, unvarying​ ​rules​ ​“It​ ​is​ ​always​ ​wrong​ ​to​ ​steal”​ ​or​ ​“I’ll​ ​be​ ​punished​ ​if​ ​I​ ​steal” 2. Conventional​ ​stage​:​ ​care​ ​for​ ​others,​ ​follow​ ​rules​ ​because​ ​they​ ​are​ ​rules.​ ​Older​ ​children tend​ ​to​ ​focus​ ​on​ ​the​ ​rules​ ​of​ ​society​ ​(“Good​ ​people​ ​don’t​ ​steal”​ ​or​ ​“What​ ​if​ ​everyone stole?”). 3. Postconventional​ ​stage​:​ ​broad​ ​abstract​ ​principles​ ​of​ ​right​ ​vs​ ​wrong •​ ​What​ ​ ​is​ ​ ​dementia? - Progressive​ ​loss​ ​of​ ​cognitive​ ​function,​ ​beyond​ ​normal​ ​aging ​ ​Occurs​ ​with​ ​old​ ​age - Memory​ ​problems​ ​&​ ​confused​ ​thinking o​ ​What​ ​ ​is​ ​ ​Alzheimer’s​ ​ ​disease?​ ​ ​ ​ ​What​ ​ ​do​ ​ ​we​ ​ ​currently​ ​ ​know​ ​ ​about​ ​ ​the​ ​ ​causes​ ​ ​of Alzheimer’s? - Gradual​ ​deterioration​ ​of​ ​memory,​ ​reasoning,​ ​language,​ ​and​ ​physical​ ​functioning Confusion,​ ​irritability,​ ​mood​ ​swings Production​ ​of​ ​beta​ ​amyloid​ ​precursor​ ​protein​ ​increases,​ ​causes​ ​inflammation​ ​and deterioration.​ ​Brain​ ​shrinks​ ​and​ ​neurons​ ​die. Causes​ ​unclear - Loss​ ​of​ ​brain​ ​cells - Deterioration​ ​of​ ​acetylcholine-producing​ ​neurons​ ​(memory​ ​&​ ​thinking deficits) - 2​ ​abnormalities​ ​in​ ​neurons:​ ​plaques​ ​at​ ​tips​ ​of​ ​neuron​ ​branches​ ​& neurofibrillary​ ​tangles​ ​in​ ​cell​ ​bodies - Alzheimer’s​ ​occurs​ ​when​ ​production​ ​of​ ​the​ ​beta​ ​amyloid​ ​precursor protein​ ​goes​ ​awry,​ ​producing​ ​large​ ​clumps​ ​of​ ​cells​ ​that​ ​trigger inflammation​ ​and​ ​deterioration​ ​of​ ​nerve​ ​cells.​ ​The​ ​brain​ ​shrinks,​ ​neurons die,​ ​and​ ​several​ ​areas​ ​of​ ​the​ ​hippocampus​ ​and​ ​frontal​ ​and​ ​temporal​ ​lobes deteriorate.​ ​So​ ​far,​ ​there​ ​is​ ​no​ ​effective​ ​treatment •​ ​How​ ​ ​does​ ​ ​memory​ ​ ​change​ ​ ​in​ ​ ​old​ ​ ​age? - Decline​ ​in​ ​episodic​ ​memory •​ ​How​ ​ ​does​ ​ ​intelligence​ ​ ​change​ ​ ​in​ ​ ​old​ ​ ​age? - As​ ​people​ ​age,​ ​fluid​ ​intelligence​ ​decreases​ ​in​ ​late​ ​adulthood.​ ​Crystallized​ ​intelligence remains​ ​constant​ ​and​ ​sometimes​ ​improves. o​ ​What​ ​ ​is​ ​ ​the​ ​ ​difference​ ​ ​between​ ​ ​a​ ​ ​cross​-sectional​ ​ ​study​ ​ ​and​ ​ ​a​ ​ ​longitudinal​ ​ ​study? - Cross​ ​sectional​ ​assesses​ ​differences​ ​among​ ​groups​ ​of​ ​people Longitudinal​ ​assesses​ ​change​ ​of​ ​behavior​ ​over​ ​time o​ ​What​ ​ ​is​ ​ ​the​ ​ ​difference​ ​ ​between​ ​ ​crystallized​ ​ ​intelligence​ ​ ​and​ ​ ​fluid​ ​ ​intelligence? - Crystallized​ ​intelligence​:​ ​based​ ​on​ ​the​ ​accumulation​ ​of​ ​information,​ ​skills,​ ​and strategies​ ​learned​ ​through​ ​experience. Fluid​ ​intelligence​:​ ​information-processing​ ​skills​ ​such​ ​as​ ​memory,​ ​calculations,​ ​and analogy​ ​solving. •​ ​Why​ ​ ​do​ ​ ​men​ ​ ​typically​ ​ ​have​ ​ ​a​ ​ ​shorter​ ​ ​lifespan​ ​ ​than​ ​ ​women? ● ​ ​Higher​ ​suicide​ ​rates ● Consume​ ​more​ ​alcohol,​ ​nicotine,​ ​and​ ​other​ ​drugs ● Males​ ​more​ ​aggressive Chapter​ ​ ​13:​ ​ ​Personality​ ​ ​Psychology •​ ​What​ ​ ​is​ ​ ​personality​ ​ ​psychology? - The​ ​study​ ​of​ ​personality​ ​and​ ​variance​ ​among​ ​individuals. Includes:​ ​construction​ ​of​ ​psychological​ ​processes​ ​and​ ​psychological​ ​differences Pattern​ ​of​ ​enduring​ ​characteristics​ ​that​ ​produce​ ​consistency​ ​and​ ​individuality •​ ​Describe​ ​ ​the​ ​ ​basic​ ​ ​principles​ ​ ​of​ ​ ​Freudian​ ​ ​psychoanalysis.​ ​ ​ ​ ​Be​ ​ ​sure​ ​ ​to​ ​ ​include​ ​ ​the following: ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​psychoanalysis: ● Hydraulic​ ​theory​ ​that​ ​attributes​ ​thoughts​ ​and​ ​behavior​ ​to​ ​unconscious​ ​motives​ ​and conflicts. ● Patients’​ ​issues:​ ​too​ ​much​ ​“pressure”​ ​in​ ​unconscious? ● Accessing​ ​unconscious​ ​>​ ​releases​ ​pressure. Sigmund​ ​Freud​ ​(1856-1939)​ ​à​ ​first​ ​“therapist” -Austrian​ ​neurologist -early​ ​interest​ ​in​ ​cocaine​ ​as​ ​treatment​ ​for​ ​physical,​ ​mental​ ​ailments -addiction,​ ​overdoses,​ ​etc. -developed​ ​interest​ ​in​ ​nervous​ ​disorders -defined​ ​by​ ​anxieties Anna​ ​O. -treated​ ​for​ ​“hysteria”​ ​by​ ​Freud -limb​ ​paralysis​ ​on​ ​right​ ​side​ ​of​ ​body -vision,​ ​hearing,​ ​&​ ​speech​ ​issues -loss​ ​of​ ​consciousness -faking​ ​symptoms?​ ​Sympathy​ ​from​ ​Freud​ ​à​ ​first​ ​“therapy”​ ​sessions -hypnosis:​ ​traumatic​ ​childhood​ ​memory o​ ​What​ ​ ​is​ ​ ​the​ ​ ​unconscious?​ ​ ​ ​ ​Why​ ​ ​was​ ​ ​the​ ​ ​unconscious​ ​ ​such​ ​ ​a​ ​ ​revolutionary concept​ ​ ​for​ ​ ​Freud​ ​ ​to​ ​ ​suggest? - Unconscious:​ ​collection​ ​of​ ​unacceptable​ ​thoughts,​ ​wishes,​ ​desires,​ ​feelings​ ​and memories. Powerful​ ​influence​ ​over​ ​thoughts/behavior? He​ ​was​ ​the​ ​first​ ​to​ ​suggest​ ​it ​ ​o​ ​Why​ ​ ​were​ ​ ​dreams,​ ​ ​free​ ​ ​associations,​ ​ ​and​ ​ ​slips​ ​ ​of​ ​ ​the​ ​ ​tongue​ ​ ​important​ ​ ​to Freud? - Freud​ ​found​ ​deeper​ ​meaning​ ​in​ ​everything Represent​ ​unconscious​ ​motives​ ​and​ ​conflicts​ ​in​ ​our​ ​thoughts/behavior dreams:​ ​latent​ ​content​ ​(underlying​ ​meaning​ ​of​ ​dream)​ ​vs.​ ​manifest​ ​content free​ ​association​:​ ​stating​ ​first​ ​thing​ ​that​ ​comes​ ​to​ ​mind​ ​after​ ​being​ ​presented​ ​with a​ ​stimulus slip​ ​of​ ​the​ ​tongue:​ ​meaning​ ​to​ ​say​ ​one​ ​thing​ ​and​ ​accidently​ ​saying​ ​another o​ ​What​ ​ ​is​ ​ ​a​ ​ ​projective​ ​ ​test?​ ​ ​ ​ ​Give​ ​ ​an​ ​ ​example​ ​ ​of​ ​ ​a​ ​ ​projective​ ​ ​test. - Personality​ ​test​ ​using​ ​ambiguous​ ​stimuli​ ​to​ ​elicit​ ​projection​ ​of​ ​inner​ ​conflict. Rorschach​ ​inkblot​ ​test​:​ ​presented​ ​ambiguous​ ​pictures​ ​and​ ​must​ ​define​ ​content. o​ ​Wh...
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